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Isaac Newton

Geburtstag: 4. Januar 1643
Todesdatum: 20. März 1727
Andere Namen:Sir Isaac Newton

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Sir Isaac Newton [ˌaɪzək ˈnjuːtən] war ein englischer Naturforscher und Verwaltungsbeamter. In der Sprache seiner Zeit, die zwischen natürlicher Theologie, Naturwissenschaften, Alchemie und Philosophie noch nicht scharf trennte, wurde Newton als Philosoph bezeichnet.

Isaac Newton ist der Verfasser der Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, in denen er mit seinem Gravitationsgesetz die universelle Gravitation beschrieb und die Bewegungsgesetze formulierte, womit er den Grundstein für die klassische Mechanik legte. Fast gleichzeitig mit Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz entwickelte Newton die Infinitesimalrechnung. Er verallgemeinerte das binomische Theorem mittels unendlicher Reihen auf beliebige reelle Exponenten. Bekannt ist er auch für seine Leistungen auf dem Gebiet der Optik: Die von ihm verfochtene Teilchentheorie des Lichtes und die Erklärung des Lichtspektrums.

Aufgrund seiner Leistungen, vor allem auf den Gebieten der Physik und Mathematik , gilt Sir Isaac Newton als einer der bedeutendsten Wissenschaftler aller Zeiten. Die Principia Mathematica werden als eines der wichtigsten wissenschaftlichen Werke eingestuft.

Zitate Isaac Newton

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„Platon ist mein Freund und Aristoteles auch, meine liebste Freundin aber ist die Wahrheit“

— Isaac Newton
(nach Aristoteles über Platon: Nikomachische Ethik 1096a 13ff.); zitiert nach der Einführung von Ed Dellian zu Samuel Clarke: Der Briefwechsel mit G. W. Leibniz von 1715/1716. Felix Meiner Hamburg 1990. S. XXXVI, Google Books

„Wenn ich weiter sehen konnte, so deshalb, weil ich auf den Schultern von Riesen stand.“

— Isaac Newton
Brief an Robert Hooke, 5. Februar 1675/76; zitiert nach Richard Westfall: Isaac Newton. Eine Biographie. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg/Berlin/Oxford 1996, ISBN 3827400406, S. 143. Siehe dazu: Zwerge auf den Schultern von Riesen

„Denn was dieser Äther ist, weiß ich nicht.“

— Isaac Newton
zitiert nach Isaak Newton: Optik oder Abhandlung über Spiegelungen, Brechungen, Beugungen und Farben des Lichts, (Ostwalds Klassiker, Bd. 96), übers. u. hg. von William Abendroth, Harri Deutsch, 1998. S. 109. ISBN 3-8171-3096-1 Siehe dazu: Äther (Physik)

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„I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.“

— Isaac Newton
Memoirs of the Life, Writings, and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton (1855) by Sir David Brewster (Volume II. Ch. 27). Compare: "As children gath'ring pebbles on the shore", John Milton, Paradise Regained, Book iv. Line 330

„Men build too many walls and not enough bridges.“

— Isaac Newton
This became widely attributed to Isaac Newton after Dominique Pire ascribed it to "the words of Newton" in his Nobel Lecture, 11 December 1958.[http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1958/pire-lecture.html] Pire refers not to Isaac, but to Joseph Fort Newton, who is widely reported to have said "People are lonely because they build walls instead of bridges." This appears to be paraphrased from a longer passage found in his essays and addresses, The One Great Church: Adventures of Faith (1948), pp. 51–52: "Why are so many people shy, lonely, shut up within themselves, unequal to their tasks, unable to be happy? Because they are inhabited by fear, like the man in the Parable of the Talents, erecting walls around themselves instead of building bridges into the lives of others; shutting out life."

„If I have seen further it is by standing on ye sholders of Giants.“

— Isaac Newton, The Correspondence Of Isaac Newton
Context: If I have seen further it is by standing on ye sholders of Giants. <!-- This is DELIBERATELY left in archaic form — for modernized renditions see BELOW Letter to Robert Hooke (15 February 1676) The phrase is most famous as an expression of Newton's but he was using a metaphor which in its earliest known form was attributed to Bernard of Chartres by John of Salisbury: Bernard of Chartres used to say that we [the Moderns] are like dwarves perched on the shoulders of giants [the Ancients], and thus we are able to see more and farther than the latter. And this is not at all because of the acuteness of our sight or the stature of our body, but because we are carried aloft and elevated by the magnitude of the giants.<!-- Metalogicon (1159) bk. 3, ch. 4, as quoted in Medieval Rhetoric : A Casebook (2004) by Scott D. Troyan, p. 10 --> Modernized variants: If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants. If I have seen further it is only by standing on the shoulders of giants.

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„We account the Scriptures of God to be the most sublime philosophy. I find more sure remarks of authenticity in the Bible than in any profane history whatever“

— Isaac Newton
Context: We account the Scriptures of God to be the most sublime philosophy. I find more sure remarks of authenticity in the Bible than in any profane history whatever. Anecdote reported by Dr. Robert Smith, late Master of Trinity College, to his student Richard Watson, as something that Newton expressed when he was writing his Commentary On Daniel. In Watson's Apology for the Bible. London 8vo. (1806), p. 57

„But if I have done the public any service this way, 'tis due to“

— Isaac Newton
Context: When I wrote my treatise about our System, I had an eye upon such principles as might work with considering men for the belief of a Deity and nothing can rejoice me more than to find it useful for that purpose. But if I have done the public any service this way, 'tis due to nothing but industry and a patient thought. Newton to Bentley, 10 December 1692 (first letter), The Correspondence of Isaac Newton, ed. H. W. Turnbull (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1961), 3:233. Referenced on p. 383 of Snobelen SD: "[https://isaacnewtonstheology.files.wordpress.com/2013/06/theology-of-the-principia.pdf The Theology of Isaac Newton’s Principia Mathematica: A Preliminary Survey]," pp. 377–412, Neue Zeitschrift für Systematische Theologie und Religionsphilosophie, Volume 52, Issue 4 (Jan 2010)

„Useful Things, though Mechanical, are justly preferable to useless Speculations in Geometry“

— Isaac Newton
Context: Useful Things, though Mechanical, are justly preferable to useless Speculations in Geometry, as we learn from Pappus.<!--p.248

„The event will prove the Apocalypse; and this Prophecy, thus proved and understood, will open the old Prophets, and all together will make known the true religion, and establish it. For he that will understand the old Prophets, must begin with this; but the time is not yet come for understanding them perfectly, because the main revolution predicted in them is not yet come to pass.“

— Isaac Newton
Context: The folly of Interpreters has been, to foretell times and things by this Prophecy, as if God designed to make them Prophets. By this rashness they have not only exposed themselves, but brought the Prophecy also into contempt. The design of God was much otherwise. He gave this and the Prophecies of the Old Testament, not to gratify mens curiosities by enabling them to foreknow things, but that after they were fulfilled they might be interpreted by the event, and his own Providence, not the Interpreters, be then manifested thereby to the world. For the event of things predicted many ages before, will then be a convincing argument that the world is governed by providence. For, as the few and obscure Prophecies concerning Christ’s first coming were for setting up the Christian religion, which all nations have since corrupted; so the many and clear Prophecies concerning the things to be done at Christ’s second coming, are not only for predicting but also for effecting a recovery and re-establishment of the long-lost truth, and setting up a kingdom wherein dwells righteousness. The event will prove the Apocalypse; and this Prophecy, thus proved and understood, will open the old Prophets, and all together will make known the true religion, and establish it. For he that will understand the old Prophets, must begin with this; but the time is not yet come for understanding them perfectly, because the main revolution predicted in them is not yet come to pass. In the days of the voice of the seventh Angel, when he shall begin to sound, the mystery of God shall be finished, as he hath declared to his servants the Prophets: and then the kingdoms of this world shall become the kingdom of our Lord and his Christ, and he shall reign for ever, Apoc. x. 7. xi. 15. There is already so much of the Prophecy fulfilled, that as many as will take pains in this study, may see sufficient instances of God’s providence: but then the signal revolutions predicted by all the holy Prophets, will at once both turn men’s eyes upon considering the predictions, and plainly interpret them. Till then we must content ourselves with interpreting what hath been already fulfilled. Amongst the Interpreters of the last age there to scarce one of note who hath not made some discovery worth knowing; and thence I seem to gather that God is about opening these mysteries. The success of others put me upon considering it; and if I have done any thing which may be useful to following writers, I have my design. Vol. II, Ch. 1 : Introduction, concerning the time when the Apocalypse was written

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