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Thomas Morus

Geburtstag: 7. Februar 1478
Todesdatum: 6. Juli 1535
Andere Namen: San Tommaso Moro

Thomas Morus war ein englischer Staatsmann und humanistischer Autor. Er ist ein Heiliger und Märtyrer der römisch-katholischen Kirche und Patron der Regierenden und Politiker.

Photo: Hans Holbein / Public domain

Werk

Utopia
Utopia
Thomas Morus

„Gott hat uns nicht nur das Recht auf das fremde, sondern sogar auf das eigene Leben genommen.“

—  Thomas Morus, buch Utopia

Utopia. a.a.O., S. 33.
"deus non alienae modo, uerum etiam suae cuique mortis ius ademerit," - Utopia. Liber I. Colloquium apud Cardinalem Ioannem Mortonum (la.wikisource) http://la.wikisource.org/wiki/Utopia/Liber_I/Colloquium_apud_Cardinalem_Ioannem_Mortonum
engl.: "[...] for God having taken from us the right of disposing either of our own or of other people’s lives [...]

„Gerade den besten Gesetzen der Vorfahren geben wir leichten Herzens den Abschied.“

—  Thomas Morus

Utopia I.
engl.: "But though they willingly let go all the good things that were among those of former ages, [...]"

„Und gewiß ist es ganz natürlich, daß einem jeden seine eigenen Einfälle zusagen. So findet der Rabe ebenso wie der Affe am eigenen Jungen seinen Gefallen.“

—  Thomas Morus, buch Utopia

Utopia
engl.: "and, indeed, nature has so made us, that we all love to be flattered and to please ourselves with our own notions: the old crow loves his young, and the ape her cubs."

„Die Frauen sind ihren Männern, die Kinder den Eltern und so überhaupt die Jüngeren den Älteren untertan.“

—  Thomas Morus, buch Utopia

Utopia (1516). Übersetzung von Gerhard Ritter. Reclam, Stuttgart 1964 u.ö., ISBN 3-15-000513-2, S. 77.
engl.: "Wives serve their husbands, and children their parents, and always the younger serves the elder." - http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Utopia/Chapter_5

„Ein Gewerbe ist allen Männern und Frauen gemeinsam: der Ackerbau; den versteht jeder. Darin werden alle von Kindheit an unterwiesen.“

—  Thomas Morus, buch Utopia

Utopia. a.a.O., S. 69.
engl.: "Agriculture is that which is so universally understood among them that no person, either man or woman, is ignorant of it; they are instructed in it from their childhood, [...]" - http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Utopia/Chapter_4

„Es ist ausgeschlossen, dass alle Verhältnisse gut sind, solange nicht alle Menschen gut sind, worauf wir ja wohl noch eine hübsche Reihe von Jahren werden warten müssen.“

—  Thomas Morus, buch Utopia

Utopia. a.a.O., S. 52.
engl.: "for, except all men were good, everything cannot be right, and that is a blessing that I do not at present hope to see."

„Ruft den Ackerbau wieder ins Leben, erneuert die Wollspinnerei; das gäbe ein recht ehrsames Geschäft, in dem sich mit Nutzen jeder Schwarm von Tagesdieben betätigen könnte, die bisher die Not zu Dieben gemacht hat.“

—  Thomas Morus, buch Utopia

Utopia. a.a.O., S. 31.
engl.: "Let agriculture be set up again, and the manufacture of the wool be regulated, that so there may be work found for those companies of idle people whom want forces to be thieves, or who now, being idle vagabonds or useless servants, will certainly grow thieves at last."

„Setzt Schranken gegen die Aufkäufe der reichen Besitzer und gegen die Freiheit gleichsam ihres Monopols!“

—  Thomas Morus, buch Utopia

Utopia. a.a.O., S. 31.
engl.: "restrain those engrossings of the rich, that are as bad almost as monopolies."

„Sorgt, dass nicht so viele vom Müßiggang leben!“

—  Thomas Morus, buch Utopia

Utopia. a.a.O., S. 31.
engl.: "leave fewer occasions to idleness."

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„Warum sollten wir denn Bedenken haben, jene alte Methode der Bestrafung von Verbrechen für nützlich zu halten, die schon im Altertum die Römer verwandt haben? Sie pflegten nämlich die Schwerverbrecher zur Arbeit in Steinbrüchen und Erzgruben zu verurteilen.“

—  Thomas Morus, buch Utopia

Utopia. a.a.O., S. 35.
engl.: "why should we doubt but the way that was so long in use among the old Romans, who understood so well the arts of government, was very proper for their punishment? They condemned such as they found guilty of great crimes to work their whole lives in quarries, or to dig in mines with chains about them."

„Wer sinnt wohl eifriger auf Umsturz als der, dem seine gegenwärtigen Lebensumstände so gar nicht gefallen können?“

—  Thomas Morus, buch Utopia

Utopia. a.a.O., S. 49.
engl.: "who does more earnestly long for a change than he that is uneasy in his present circumstances?"

„Wo findet sich mehr Gezänk als unter den Bettlern?“

—  Thomas Morus, buch Utopia

Utopia. a.a.O., S. 49.
engl.: "Who quarrel more than beggars?"

„I think putting thieves to death is not lawful; and it is plain and obvious that it is absurd and of ill consequence to the commonwealth that a thief and a murderer should be equally punished“

—  Thomas More, buch Utopia

Quelle: Utopia (1516), Ch. 1 : Discourses of Raphael Hythloday, of the Best State of a Commonwealth
Kontext: I think putting thieves to death is not lawful; and it is plain and obvious that it is absurd and of ill consequence to the commonwealth that a thief and a murderer should be equally punished; for if a robber sees that his danger is the same if he is convicted of theft as if he were guilty of murder, this will naturally incite him to kill the person whom otherwise he would only have robbed; since, if the punishment is the same, there is more security, and less danger of discovery, when he that can best make it is put out of the way; so that terrifying thieves too much provokes them to cruelty.

„Those among them that have not received our religion do not fright any from it, and use none ill that goes over to it, so that all the while I was there one man was only punished on this occasion.“

—  Thomas More, buch Utopia

Quelle: Utopia (1516), Ch. 9 : Of the Religions of the Utopians
Kontext: Those among them that have not received our religion do not fright any from it, and use none ill that goes over to it, so that all the while I was there one man was only punished on this occasion. He being newly baptised did, notwithstanding all that we could say to the contrary, dispute publicly concerning the Christian religion, with more zeal than discretion, and with so much heat, that he not only preferred our worship to theirs, but condemned all their rites as profane, and cried out against all that adhered to them as impious and sacrilegious persons, that were to be damned to everlasting burnings. Upon his having frequently preached in this manner he was seized, and after trial he was condemned to banishment, not for having disparaged their religion, but for his inflaming the people to sedition; for this is one of their most ancient laws, that no man ought to be punished for his religion.

„The island of Utopia is in the middle two hundred miles broad, and holds almost at the same breadth over a great part of it, but it grows narrower towards both ends.“

—  Thomas More, buch Utopia

Quelle: Utopia (1516), Ch. 1 : Discourses of Raphael Hythloday, of the Best State of a Commonwealth
Kontext: The island of Utopia is in the middle two hundred miles broad, and holds almost at the same breadth over a great part of it, but it grows narrower towards both ends. Its figure is not unlike a crescent. Between its horns the sea comes in eleven miles broad, and spreads itself into a great bay, which is environed with land to the compass of about five hundred miles, and is well secured from winds. In this bay there is no great current; the whole coast is, as it were, one continued harbour, which gives all that live in the island great convenience for mutual commerce. But the entry into the bay, occasioned by rocks on the one hand and shallows on the other, is very dangerous. In the middle of it there is one single rock which appears above water, and may, therefore, easily be avoided; and on the top of it there is a tower, in which a garrison is kept; the other rocks lie under water, and are very dangerous. The channel is known only to the natives; so that if any stranger should enter into the bay without one of their pilots he would run great danger of shipwreck.

„There are several sorts of religions, not only in different parts of the island, but even in every town; some worshipping the sun, others the moon or one of the planets.“

—  Thomas More, buch Utopia

Quelle: Utopia (1516), Ch. 9 : Of the Religions of the Utopians
Kontext: There are several sorts of religions, not only in different parts of the island, but even in every town; some worshipping the sun, others the moon or one of the planets. Some worship such men as have been eminent in former times for virtue or glory, not only as ordinary deities, but as the supreme god. Yet the greater and wiser sort of them worship none of these, but adore one eternal, invisible, infinite, and incomprehensible Deity; as a Being that is far above all our apprehensions, that is spread over the whole universe, not by His bulk, but by His power and virtue; Him they call the Father of All, and acknowledge that the beginnings, the increase, the progress, the vicissitudes, and the end of all things come only from Him; nor do they offer divine honours to any but to Him alone. And, indeed, though they differ concerning other things, yet all agree in this: that they think there is one Supreme Being that made and governs the world, whom they call, in the language of their country, Mithras. They differ in this: that one thinks the god whom he worships is this Supreme Being, and another thinks that his idol is that god; but they all agree in one principle, that whoever is this Supreme Being, He is also that great essence to whose glory and majesty all honours are ascribed by the consent of all nations.

„They have but few laws, and such is their constitution that they need not many.“

—  Thomas More, buch Utopia

Original: (la) leges habent perquam paucas. sufficiunt enim sic institutis paucissimae. quin hoc in primis apud alios improbant populos, quod legum interpretumque uolumina, non infinita sufficiunt. ipsi uero censent iniquissimum; ullos homines his obligari legibus; quae aut numerosiores sint, quam ut perlegi queant; aut obscuriores quam ut a quouis possint intelligi.
Quelle: Utopia (1516), Ch. 7 : Of Their Slaves, and of Their Marriages
Kontext: They have but few laws, and such is their constitution that they need not many. They very much condemn other nations whose laws, together with the commentaries on them, swell up to so many volumes; for they think it an unreasonable thing to oblige men to obey a body of laws that are both of such a bulk, and so dark as not to be read and understood by every one of the subjects.

„The channel is known only to the natives; so that if any stranger should enter into the bay without one of their pilots he would run great danger of shipwreck.“

—  Thomas More, buch Utopia

Quelle: Utopia (1516), Ch. 1 : Discourses of Raphael Hythloday, of the Best State of a Commonwealth
Kontext: The island of Utopia is in the middle two hundred miles broad, and holds almost at the same breadth over a great part of it, but it grows narrower towards both ends. Its figure is not unlike a crescent. Between its horns the sea comes in eleven miles broad, and spreads itself into a great bay, which is environed with land to the compass of about five hundred miles, and is well secured from winds. In this bay there is no great current; the whole coast is, as it were, one continued harbour, which gives all that live in the island great convenience for mutual commerce. But the entry into the bay, occasioned by rocks on the one hand and shallows on the other, is very dangerous. In the middle of it there is one single rock which appears above water, and may, therefore, easily be avoided; and on the top of it there is a tower, in which a garrison is kept; the other rocks lie under water, and are very dangerous. The channel is known only to the natives; so that if any stranger should enter into the bay without one of their pilots he would run great danger of shipwreck.

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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