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Mahátma Gándhí

Geburtstag: 2. Oktober 1869
Todesdatum: 30. Januar 1948
Andere Namen: Móhandás Karamčand Gándhí

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi war ein indischer Rechtsanwalt, Widerstandskämpfer, Revolutionär, Publizist, Morallehrer, Asket und Pazifist.

Zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts setzte sich Gandhi in Südafrika gegen die Rassentrennung und für die Gleichberechtigung der Inder ein. Danach entwickelte er sich ab Ende der 1910er Jahre in Indien zum politischen und geistigen Anführer der indischen Unabhängigkeitsbewegung. Gandhi forderte die Menschenrechte für Unberührbare und Frauen, er trat für die Versöhnung zwischen Hindus und Muslimen ein, kämpfte gegen die koloniale Ausbeutung und für ein neues, autarkes, von der bäuerlichen Lebensweise geprägtes Wirtschaftssystem. Die Unabhängigkeitsbewegung führte mit gewaltfreiem Widerstand, zivilem Ungehorsam und Hungerstreiks schließlich das Ende der britischen Kolonialherrschaft über Indien herbei , verbunden mit der Teilung Indiens. Ein halbes Jahr danach fiel Gandhi einem Attentat zum Opfer.

Gandhi musste in Südafrika und Indien insgesamt acht Jahre in Gefängnissen verbringen. Seine Grundhaltung Satyagraha, das beharrliche Festhalten an der Wahrheit, umfasst neben Ahimsa, der Gewaltlosigkeit, noch weitere ethische Forderungen wie etwa Swaraj, was sowohl individuelle als auch politische Selbstkontrolle und Selbstbestimmung bedeutet.

Schon zu Lebzeiten war Gandhi weltberühmt, für viele ein Vorbild und so anerkannt, dass er mehrmals für den Friedensnobelpreis nominiert wurde. In seinem Todesjahr wurde dieser Nobelpreis symbolisch nicht vergeben.

Zitate Mahátma Gándhí

Citát „Wo Liebe wächst, gedeiht Leben - wo Hass aufkommt droht Untergang.“

„Die Ehrfurcht vor dem "universalen und alles durchdringenden Geist der Wahrheit […] hat mich in die Politik geführt; und ich kann ohne Zögern und doch in aller Demut sagen, dass ein Mensch, der behauptet, Religion habe nichts mit Politik zu tun, nicht weiß, was Religion bedeutet."“

—  Mahátma Gándhí
nach Hubertus Mynarek, „Gedanken zur Logik der Macht“, aus: „Aufklärung und Kritik“ 1/1998 http://www.gkpn.de/id142.htm, S. 27 ff. ("To see the universal and all-pervading Spirit of Truth face to face one must be able to love the meanest of creation as oneself. And a man who aspires after that cannot afford to keep out of any field of life. That is why my devotion to Truth has drawn me into the field of politics; and I can say without the slightest hesitation, and yet in all humility, that those who say that religion has nothing to do with politics do not know what religion means." - An Autobiography or The Story of My Experiments with Truth. Originaltitel: Sathiya Sodhani. Übersetzung aus dem Gujarati von Mahadev Desai. Schlusskapitel: Farewell .mkgandhi.org http://www.mkgandhi.org/autobio/chap168.htm

„Zuerst ignorieren sie dich, dann lachen sie über dich, dann bekämpfen sie dich und dann gewinnst du.“

—  Mahátma Gándhí
Fälschlich zugeschrieben, Dieser als Ausspruch Gandhis verbreitete Satz geht zurück auf eine Rede des US-Gewerkschafters Nicholas Klein auf dem Gewerkschaftstag 1918 der Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America: „Und, liebe Freunde, in dieser Geschichte findet ihr die Historie unserer gesamten Bewegung wieder: Zuerst ignorieren sie dich. Dann machen sie dich lächerlich. Dann greifen sie dich an und wollen dich verbrennen. Und dann errichten sie dir Denkmäler. Und das ist genau das, was den vereinigten Arbeitern der Bekleidungsindustrie Amerikas passieren wird.“ - Jungle World, 20. Oktober 2011 https://jungle.world/artikel/2011/42/gandhi-ist-immer-gut. "And, my friends, in this story you have a history of this entire movement. First they ignore you. Then they ridicule you. And then they attack you and want to burn you. And then they build monuments to you. And that is what is going to happen to the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America." - Proceedings of the Third Biennial Convention of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America (1918) p. 53 http://books.google.de/books?id=QrcpAAAAYAAJ&dq=ignore

„Das Volk ergreift man nicht mit dem Verstand, sondern mit dem Herzen.“

—  Mahátma Gándhí
zitiert in: „Denkverbot, was Religion bedeutet.“, zitiert nach Hubertus Mynarek, „Gedanken zur Logik der Macht“, aus: „Aufklärung und Kritik“ 1/1998, S. 27 ff.

„Gewaltlosigkeit bedeutet keineswegs Ablehnung jeglicher Konfrontation mit dem Bösen. Sie ist meiner Auffassung nach im Gegenteil eine Form eines sehr aktiven Kampfes - echter als der gewalttätige Gegenschlag, dessen Wesen im Grunde die Vermehrung der Boshaftigkeit ist.“

—  Mahátma Gándhí
Ausgewählte Texte, Hrsg. von Richard Attenborough, Goldmann Verlag, 1989, ISBN 3442065771 ("Nonviolence is ‘not a resignation from all real fighting against wickedness’. On the contrary, the nonviolence of my conception is a more active and real fight against wickedness than retaliation whose very nature is to increase wickedness." - Young India October 8, 1925 http://books.google.de/books?id=dstUBU3bo4gC&pg=PA33, http://www.mkgandhi.org/nonviolence/gstruggle.htm

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„Dem Verstand Allwissenheit zuzuschreiben, ist die gleiche Art von Götzendienst, wie die Anbetung von Stock und Stein. Ich plädiere nicht für eine Abwertung der Vernunft, aber für die gebührende Anerkennung der Instanz in uns, die die Vernunft heiligt.“

—  Mahátma Gándhí
Young India, 14.10.1924; zitiert in: The Columbia Dictionary of Quotations; Timothy R. Jennings, Ein gesunder Geist: Wie erlangen wir ihn, Advent-Verlag, S. 22 "Attribution of omnipotence to reason is as bad a piece of idolatry as is worship of stock and stone believing it to be God. [...] I plead not for the suppression of reason, but for a due recognition of that in us which sanctifies reason itself." - in: Young India Oct. 14, 1926 http://books.google.de/books?id=ZHjjAAAAMAAJ&q=despising. p. 359 http://books.google.de/books?id=ZHjjAAAAMAAJ&q=idolatry

„Wenn du im Recht bist, kannst du es dir leisten, Ruhe zu bewahren; und wenn du im Unrecht bist, kannst du es dir nicht leisten, sie zu verlieren.“

—  Mahátma Gándhí
Fälschlich zugeschrieben, In Sevagram - Gandhiji's ashram and other institutions in Wardha (1969) von R.V. Rao heißt es, Gandhi habe in seinen dortigen Räumen neben einem Zitat von John Ruskin über die Lüge ein weiteres von "G.C. Larimer" ausgestellt: "When you are in the right you can afford to keep your temper and when you are in the wrong, you can't afford to lose it", p. 6 books.google http://books.google.de/books?id=Djw2AAAAIAAJ&q=larimer. Tatsächlich findet sich das Zitat in George Horace Lorimers ab 1901/02 in zahlreichen Auflagen veröffentlichten Letters from A Self-Made Merchant To His Son, Being the Letters written by John Graham, Head of the House of Graham & Company, Pork-Packers in Chicago, [...] to his Son, Pierrepont [...], No. 7: Omaha September 1st, 189-, en.wikisource https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Letters_from_a_Self-Made_Merchant_to_His_Son/Letter_7#81, gutenberg.org http://www.gutenberg.org/files/21959/21959-h/21959-h.htm & p. 83 archive.org https://archive.org/stream/lettersfromasel01lorigoog#page/n106/mode/2up. Schon am 1. März 1958 hatte The Saturday Evening Post den Artikel What Negroes Can Learn From Gandhi von Chester Bowles veröffentlicht, in dem es ohne Bezug auf Lorimer, den früheren Chefredakteur und Herausgeber der Post, heißt: "On the wall over Gandhi's simple bed hung a sign: 'When you are in the right you can afford to keep your temper; and when you are wrong you cannot afford to lose it'", http://www.mkgandhi.org/articles/negroes&g.htm.

„The best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in the service of others“

—  Махатма Ганди
Disputed, Attributed to Gandhi in Stone, The Full Spectrum Synthesis Bible, iUniverse, 2001. link to Google Books https://books.google.com/books?id=K6NiilgGaqMC&pg=PA168&dq=%22lose+yourself+in+the+service+of+others%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CB0Q6AEwAGoVChMI9pbPuNK_yAIVVMxjCh0RxgLp#v=onepage&q=%22lose%20yourself%20in%20the%20service%20of%20others%22&f=false. However, very similar quotes are found in the nineteenth century: "Have you sorrows or trials that seem very heavy to bear? Then let me tell you that one of the best ways in the world to lighten and sweeten them is to lose yourself in the service of others ..." from Trine, What All The World's A-Seeking (1896) Google Books link https://books.google.com/books?id=9oM7AAAAYAAJ&pg=PA78&dq=%22lose+yourself+in+the+service+of+others%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CCIQ6AEwAWoVChMIrZvI7tG_yAIVEcVjCh0WsgJW#v=onepage&q=%22lose%20yourself%20in%20the%20service%20of%20others%22&f=false; "To lose yourself in the service of others may be to truly find yourself" from Usher, Protestantism (1897) Googe Books link https://books.google.com/books?id=kftDAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA43&dq=%22lose+yourself+in+the+service+of+others&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CBwQ6AEwAGoVChMI4_Ls6NG_yAIVQsdjCh1iSAL7#v=onepage&q=%22lose%20yourself%20in%20the%20service%20of%20others&f=false.

„I claim no perfection for my self. But I do claim to be a passionate seeker after Truth, which is but another name for God.“

—  Махатма Ганди
1940s, To Every Briton (1940), Context: This is no appeal made by a man who does not know his business. I have been practising with scientific precision non-violence and its possibilities for an unbroken period of over fifty years. I have applied it in every walk of life, domestic, institutional, economic and political. I know of no single case in which it has failed. Where it has seemed sometimes to have failed, I have ascribed it to my imperfections. I claim no perfection for my self. But I do claim to be a passionate seeker after Truth, which is but another name for God. In the course of the search the discovery of non-violence came to me. Its spread is my life-mission. I have no interest in living except for the prosecution of that mission.

„In the democracy which I have envisaged, a democracy established by non-violence, there will be equal freedom for all. Everybody will be his own master. It is to join a struggle for such democracy that I invite you today.“

—  Махатма Ганди
1940s, Context: Ours is not a drive for power, but purely a non-violent fight for India’s independence. In a violent struggle, a successful general has been often known to effect a military coup and to set up a dictatorship. But under the Congress scheme of things, essentially non-violent as it is, there can be no room for dictatorship. A non-violent soldier of freedom will covet nothing for himself, he fights only for the freedom of his country. I read Carlyle’s French Revolution while I was in prison, and Pandit Jawaharlal has told me something about the Russian revolution. But it is my conviction that inasmuch as these struggles were fought with the weapon of violence they failed to realize the democratic ideal. In the democracy which I have envisaged, a democracy established by non-violence, there will be equal freedom for all. Everybody will be his own master. It is to join a struggle for such democracy that I invite you today. Once you realize this you will forget the differences between the Hindus and Muslims, and think of yourselves as Indians only, engaged in the common struggle for independence. We cannot evoke the true spirit of sacrifice and valour, so long as we are not free. I know the British Government will not be able to withhold freedom from us, when we have made enough self-sacrifice. We must, therefore, purge ourselves of hatred. From the Quit India speech in Bombay, on the eve of the Quit India movement (8 August 1942)

„A non-violent soldier of freedom will covet nothing for himself, he fights only for the freedom of his country.“

—  Махатма Ганди
1940s, Context: Ours is not a drive for power, but purely a non-violent fight for India’s independence. In a violent struggle, a successful general has been often known to effect a military coup and to set up a dictatorship. But under the Congress scheme of things, essentially non-violent as it is, there can be no room for dictatorship. A non-violent soldier of freedom will covet nothing for himself, he fights only for the freedom of his country. I read Carlyle’s French Revolution while I was in prison, and Pandit Jawaharlal has told me something about the Russian revolution. But it is my conviction that inasmuch as these struggles were fought with the weapon of violence they failed to realize the democratic ideal. In the democracy which I have envisaged, a democracy established by non-violence, there will be equal freedom for all. Everybody will be his own master. It is to join a struggle for such democracy that I invite you today. Once you realize this you will forget the differences between the Hindus and Muslims, and think of yourselves as Indians only, engaged in the common struggle for independence. We cannot evoke the true spirit of sacrifice and valour, so long as we are not free. I know the British Government will not be able to withhold freedom from us, when we have made enough self-sacrifice. We must, therefore, purge ourselves of hatred. From the Quit India speech in Bombay, on the eve of the Quit India movement (8 August 1942)

„Nonviolence in its dynamic condition means conscious suffering. It does not means meek submission to the will of the evil-doer, but it means the putting of one's whole soul against the will of the tyrant.“

—  Махатма Ганди
1920s, The Doctrine Of The Sword (1920), Context: Nonviolence in its dynamic condition means conscious suffering. It does not means meek submission to the will of the evil-doer, but it means the putting of one's whole soul against the will of the tyrant. Working under this law of being, it is possible for a single individual to defy the whole might of an unjust empire to save his honor, his religion, his soul and lay the foundation for the empire's fall or its regeneration. And so I am not pleading for India to practice nonviolence because it is weak. I want her to practice nonviolence being conscious of her strength and power. No training in arms is required for realization of her strength. We seem to need it because we seem to think that we are but a lump of flesh. I want India to recognize that she has a soul that cannot perish and that can rise triumphant above every physical weakness and defy the physical combination of a whole world.

„Leo Tolstoy's life has been devoted to replacing the method of violence for removing tyranny or securing reform by the method of non­resistance to evil. He would meet hatred expressed in violence by love expressed in self­suffering.“

—  Махатма Ганди
1900s, Context: Leo Tolstoy's life has been devoted to replacing the method of violence for removing tyranny or securing reform by the method of non­resistance to evil. He would meet hatred expressed in violence by love expressed in self­suffering. He admits of no exception to whittle down this great and divine law of love. He applies it to all the problems that trouble mankind. Introduction to the publication of Tolstoy's A Letter to a Hindu, Indian opinion, 25 December, (1909)

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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