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Mahátma Gándhí

Geburtstag: 2. Oktober 1869
Todesdatum: 30. Januar 1948
Andere Namen: Móhandás Karamčand Gándhí

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi war ein indischer Rechtsanwalt, Widerstandskämpfer, Revolutionär, Publizist, Morallehrer, Asket und Pazifist.

Zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts setzte sich Gandhi in Südafrika gegen die Rassentrennung und für die Gleichberechtigung der Inder ein. Danach entwickelte er sich ab Ende der 1910er Jahre in Indien zum politischen und geistigen Anführer der indischen Unabhängigkeitsbewegung. Gandhi forderte die Menschenrechte für Unberührbare und Frauen, er trat für die Versöhnung zwischen Hindus und Muslimen ein, kämpfte gegen die koloniale Ausbeutung und für ein neues, autarkes, von der bäuerlichen Lebensweise geprägtes Wirtschaftssystem. Die Unabhängigkeitsbewegung führte mit gewaltfreiem Widerstand, zivilem Ungehorsam und Hungerstreiks schließlich das Ende der britischen Kolonialherrschaft über Indien herbei , verbunden mit der Teilung Indiens. Ein halbes Jahr danach fiel Gandhi einem Attentat zum Opfer.

Gandhi musste in Südafrika und Indien insgesamt acht Jahre in Gefängnissen verbringen. Seine Grundhaltung Satyagraha, das beharrliche Festhalten an der Wahrheit, umfasst neben Ahimsa, der Gewaltlosigkeit, noch weitere ethische Forderungen wie etwa Swaraj, was sowohl individuelle als auch politische Selbstkontrolle und Selbstbestimmung bedeutet.

Schon zu Lebzeiten war Gandhi weltberühmt, für viele ein Vorbild und so anerkannt, dass er mehrmals für den Friedensnobelpreis nominiert wurde. In seinem Todesjahr wurde dieser Nobelpreis symbolisch nicht vergeben.

„Das Volk ergreift man nicht mit dem Verstand, sondern mit dem Herzen.“

—  Mahátma Gándhí

zitiert in: „Denkverbot, was Religion bedeutet.“, zitiert nach Hubertus Mynarek, „Gedanken zur Logik der Macht“, aus: „Aufklärung und Kritik“ 1/1998, S. 27 ff.

„Wenn du im Recht bist, kannst du es dir leisten, Ruhe zu bewahren; und wenn du im Unrecht bist, kannst du es dir nicht leisten, sie zu verlieren.“

—  Mahátma Gándhí

In Sevagram - Gandhiji's ashram and other institutions in Wardha (1969) von R.V. Rao heißt es, Gandhi habe in seinen dortigen Räumen neben einem Zitat von John Ruskin über die Lüge ein weiteres von "G.C. Larimer" ausgestellt: "When you are in the right you can afford to keep your temper and when you are in the wrong, you can't afford to lose it", p. 6 books.google http://books.google.de/books?id=Djw2AAAAIAAJ&q=larimer.
Tatsächlich findet sich das Zitat in George Horace Lorimers ab 1901/02 in zahlreichen Auflagen veröffentlichten Letters from A Self-Made Merchant To His Son, Being the Letters written by John Graham, Head of the House of Graham & Company, Pork-Packers in Chicago, [...] to his Son, Pierrepont [...], No. 7: Omaha September 1st, 189-, en.wikisource https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Letters_from_a_Self-Made_Merchant_to_His_Son/Letter_7#81, gutenberg.org http://www.gutenberg.org/files/21959/21959-h/21959-h.htm & p. 83 archive.org https://archive.org/stream/lettersfromasel01lorigoog#page/n106/mode/2up.
Schon am 1. März 1958 hatte The Saturday Evening Post den Artikel What Negroes Can Learn From Gandhi von Chester Bowles veröffentlicht, in dem es ohne Bezug auf Lorimer, den früheren Chefredakteur und Herausgeber der Post, heißt: "On the wall over Gandhi's simple bed hung a sign: 'When you are in the right you can afford to keep your temper; and when you are wrong you cannot afford to lose it'", http://www.mkgandhi.org/articles/negroes&g.htm.
Fälschlich zugeschrieben

„Zuerst ignorieren sie dich, dann lachen sie über dich, dann bekämpfen sie dich und dann gewinnst du.“

—  Mahátma Gándhí

Dieser als Ausspruch Gandhis verbreitete Satz geht zurück auf eine Rede des US-Gewerkschafters Nicholas Klein auf dem Gewerkschaftstag 1918 der Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America:
„Und, liebe Freunde, in dieser Geschichte findet ihr die Historie unserer gesamten Bewegung wieder: Zuerst ignorieren sie dich. Dann machen sie dich lächerlich. Dann greifen sie dich an und wollen dich verbrennen. Und dann errichten sie dir Denkmäler. Und das ist genau das, was den vereinigten Arbeitern der Bekleidungsindustrie Amerikas passieren wird.“ - Jungle World, 20. Oktober 2011 https://jungle.world/artikel/2011/42/gandhi-ist-immer-gut.
"And, my friends, in this story you have a history of this entire movement. First they ignore you. Then they ridicule you. And then they attack you and want to burn you. And then they build monuments to you. And that is what is going to happen to the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America." - Proceedings of the Third Biennial Convention of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America (1918) p. 53 http://books.google.de/books?id=QrcpAAAAYAAJ&dq=ignore
Fälschlich zugeschrieben

„Dem Verstand Allwissenheit zuzuschreiben, ist die gleiche Art von Götzendienst, wie die Anbetung von Stock und Stein. Ich plädiere nicht für eine Abwertung der Vernunft, aber für die gebührende Anerkennung der Instanz in uns, die die Vernunft heiligt.“

—  Mahátma Gándhí

Young India, 14.10.1924; zitiert in: The Columbia Dictionary of Quotations; Timothy R. Jennings, Ein gesunder Geist: Wie erlangen wir ihn, Advent-Verlag, S. 22
"Attribution of omnipotence to reason is as bad a piece of idolatry as is worship of stock and stone believing it to be God. [...] I plead not for the suppression of reason, but for a due recognition of that in us which sanctifies reason itself." - in: Young India Oct. 14, 1926 http://books.google.de/books?id=ZHjjAAAAMAAJ&q=despising. p. 359 http://books.google.de/books?id=ZHjjAAAAMAAJ&q=idolatry

„Die Ehrfurcht vor dem "universalen und alles durchdringenden Geist der Wahrheit […] hat mich in die Politik geführt; und ich kann ohne Zögern und doch in aller Demut sagen, dass ein Mensch, der behauptet, Religion habe nichts mit Politik zu tun, nicht weiß, was Religion bedeutet."“

—  Mahátma Gándhí

nach Hubertus Mynarek, „Gedanken zur Logik der Macht“, aus: „Aufklärung und Kritik“ 1/1998 http://www.gkpn.de/id142.htm, S. 27 ff.
("To see the universal and all-pervading Spirit of Truth face to face one must be able to love the meanest of creation as oneself. And a man who aspires after that cannot afford to keep out of any field of life. That is why my devotion to Truth has drawn me into the field of politics; and I can say without the slightest hesitation, and yet in all humility, that those who say that religion has nothing to do with politics do not know what religion means." - An Autobiography or The Story of My Experiments with Truth. Originaltitel: Sathiya Sodhani. Übersetzung aus dem Gujarati von Mahadev Desai. Schlusskapitel: Farewell .mkgandhi.org http://www.mkgandhi.org/autobio/chap168.htm

„Gewaltlosigkeit bedeutet keineswegs Ablehnung jeglicher Konfrontation mit dem Bösen. Sie ist meiner Auffassung nach im Gegenteil eine Form eines sehr aktiven Kampfes - echter als der gewalttätige Gegenschlag, dessen Wesen im Grunde die Vermehrung der Boshaftigkeit ist.“

—  Mahátma Gándhí

Ausgewählte Texte, Hrsg. von Richard Attenborough, Goldmann Verlag, 1989, ISBN 3442065771
("Nonviolence is ‘not a resignation from all real fighting against wickedness’. On the contrary, the nonviolence of my conception is a more active and real fight against wickedness than retaliation whose very nature is to increase wickedness." - Young India October 8, 1925 http://books.google.de/books?id=dstUBU3bo4gC&pg=PA33, http://www.mkgandhi.org/nonviolence/gstruggle.htm

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Citát „Wo Liebe wächst, gedeiht Leben - wo Hass aufkommt droht Untergang.“

„The best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in the service of others“

—  Mahatma Gandhi

Attributed to Gandhi in Stone, The Full Spectrum Synthesis Bible, iUniverse, 2001. link to Google Books https://books.google.com/books?id=K6NiilgGaqMC&pg=PA168&dq=%22lose+yourself+in+the+service+of+others%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CB0Q6AEwAGoVChMI9pbPuNK_yAIVVMxjCh0RxgLp#v=onepage&q=%22lose%20yourself%20in%20the%20service%20of%20others%22&f=false. However, very similar quotes are found in the nineteenth century:
"Have you sorrows or trials that seem very heavy to bear? Then let me tell you that one of the best ways in the world to lighten and sweeten them is to lose yourself in the service of others ..." from Trine, What All The World's A-Seeking (1896) Google Books link https://books.google.com/books?id=9oM7AAAAYAAJ&pg=PA78&dq=%22lose+yourself+in+the+service+of+others%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CCIQ6AEwAWoVChMIrZvI7tG_yAIVEcVjCh0WsgJW#v=onepage&q=%22lose%20yourself%20in%20the%20service%20of%20others%22&f=false;
"To lose yourself in the service of others may be to truly find yourself" from Usher, Protestantism (1897) Googe Books link https://books.google.com/books?id=kftDAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA43&dq=%22lose+yourself+in+the+service+of+others&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CBwQ6AEwAGoVChMI4_Ls6NG_yAIVQsdjCh1iSAL7#v=onepage&q=%22lose%20yourself%20in%20the%20service%20of%20others&f=false.
Disputed

„In the democracy which I have envisaged, a democracy established by non-violence, there will be equal freedom for all. Everybody will be his own master. It is to join a struggle for such democracy that I invite you today.“

—  Mahatma Gandhi

From the Quit India speech in Bombay, on the eve of the Quit India movement (8 August 1942)
1940s
Kontext: Ours is not a drive for power, but purely a non-violent fight for India’s independence. In a violent struggle, a successful general has been often known to effect a military coup and to set up a dictatorship. But under the Congress scheme of things, essentially non-violent as it is, there can be no room for dictatorship. A non-violent soldier of freedom will covet nothing for himself, he fights only for the freedom of his country.
I read Carlyle’s French Revolution while I was in prison, and Pandit Jawaharlal has told me something about the Russian revolution. But it is my conviction that inasmuch as these struggles were fought with the weapon of violence they failed to realize the democratic ideal. In the democracy which I have envisaged, a democracy established by non-violence, there will be equal freedom for all. Everybody will be his own master. It is to join a struggle for such democracy that I invite you today. Once you realize this you will forget the differences between the Hindus and Muslims, and think of yourselves as Indians only, engaged in the common struggle for independence.
We cannot evoke the true spirit of sacrifice and valour, so long as we are not free. I know the British Government will not be able to withhold freedom from us, when we have made enough self-sacrifice. We must, therefore, purge ourselves of hatred.

„In judging myself I shall try to be as harsh as truth, as I want others also to be.“

—  Mahatma Gandhi

Introduction
1920s, An Autobiography (1927)
Kontext: In judging myself I shall try to be as harsh as truth, as I want others also to be. Measuring myself by that standard I must exclaim with Surdas: ' Where is there a wretch So wicked and loathsome as I? I have forsaken my Maker, So faithless have I been.' For it is an unbroken torture to me that I am still so far from him, who, as I fully know, governs every breath of my life, and whose offspring I am. I know that it is the evil passions within that keep me so far from Him, and yet I cannot get away from them.

„A good person will resist an evil system with his whole soul. Disobedience of the laws of an evil state is therefore a duty.“

—  Mahatma Gandhi

Non-Violent Resistance - Often misquoted as "You assist an evil system most effectively by obeying its orders and decrees. An evil system never deserves such allegiance."
Posthumous publications (1950s and later)
Kontext: You assist an unjust administration most effectively by obeying its orders and decrees. An evil administration never deserves such allegiance. Allegiance to it means partaking of the evil.
A good person will resist an evil system with his whole soul. Disobedience of the laws of an evil state is therefore a duty.

„Tolerance gives us spiritual insight, which is as far from fanaticism as the north pole is from the south. True knowledge of religion breaks down the barriers between faith and faith and gives rise to tolerance. Cultivation of tolerance for other faiths will impart to us a truer understanding of our own.“

—  Mahatma Gandhi

Young India, (Bulletin), 2-10-1930, p. 2 In: My God (1962), Chapter 13. Pathways of God http://www.mkgandhi.org/god/mygod/pathwaystogod.html, Printed and Published by: Jitendra T. Desai, Navajivan Mudranalaya, Ahemadabad-380014 India
Posthumous publications (1950s and later)
Kontext: All faiths are a gift of God, but partake of human imperfection, as they pass through the medium of humanity. God-given religion is beyond all speech. Imperfect men put it into such language as they can command, and their words are interpreted by other men equally imperfect. Whose interpretation must be held to be the right one? Every one is right from his own standpoint, but it is not impossible that every one is wrong. Hence the necessity for tolerance, which does not mean indifference towards one’s own faith, but a more intelligent and purer love for it. Tolerance gives us spiritual insight, which is as far from fanaticism as the north pole is from the south. True knowledge of religion breaks down the barriers between faith and faith and gives rise to tolerance. Cultivation of tolerance for other faiths will impart to us a truer understanding of our own.

„A non-violent soldier of freedom will covet nothing for himself, he fights only for the freedom of his country.“

—  Mahatma Gandhi

From the Quit India speech in Bombay, on the eve of the Quit India movement (8 August 1942)
1940s
Kontext: Ours is not a drive for power, but purely a non-violent fight for India’s independence. In a violent struggle, a successful general has been often known to effect a military coup and to set up a dictatorship. But under the Congress scheme of things, essentially non-violent as it is, there can be no room for dictatorship. A non-violent soldier of freedom will covet nothing for himself, he fights only for the freedom of his country.
I read Carlyle’s French Revolution while I was in prison, and Pandit Jawaharlal has told me something about the Russian revolution. But it is my conviction that inasmuch as these struggles were fought with the weapon of violence they failed to realize the democratic ideal. In the democracy which I have envisaged, a democracy established by non-violence, there will be equal freedom for all. Everybody will be his own master. It is to join a struggle for such democracy that I invite you today. Once you realize this you will forget the differences between the Hindus and Muslims, and think of yourselves as Indians only, engaged in the common struggle for independence.
We cannot evoke the true spirit of sacrifice and valour, so long as we are not free. I know the British Government will not be able to withhold freedom from us, when we have made enough self-sacrifice. We must, therefore, purge ourselves of hatred.

„An unjust law is itself a species of violence.“

—  Mahatma Gandhi

Non-Violence in Peace & War (1962) Vol. 2, edited by Mahadev Haribhai Desai, p. 144
Posthumous publications (1950s and later)
Kontext: An unjust law is itself a species of violence. Arrest for its breach is more so. Now the law of nonviolence says that violence should be resisted not by counter-violence but by nonviolence. This I do by breaking the law and by peacefully submitting to arrest and imprisonment.

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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