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Vitruv

Geburtstag: 80 v.Chr
Todesdatum: 15 v.Chr

Vitruv war ein römischer Architekt, Ingenieur und Architekturtheoretiker. Er lebte im 1. Jahrhundert v. Chr.

Zitate Vitruv

„Oak… lasts for an unlimited period when buried in underground structures.“

—  Vitruvius, buch De architectura
De architectura (The Ten Books On Architecture) (~ 15BC), Book II, ...when exposed to moisture... it cannot take in liquid on account of its compactness, but, withdrawing from the moisture, it resists it and warps, thus making cracks. Chapter IX, Sec. 8

„Our workmen, in their hurry to finish, devote themselves only to the facings“

—  Vitruvius, buch De architectura
De architectura (The Ten Books On Architecture) (~ 15BC), Book II, Context: Our workmen, in their hurry to finish, devote themselves only to the facings of the walls, setting them upright but filling the space between with a lot of broken stones and mortar thrown in anyhow. This makes three different sections in the same structure; two consisting of facing and one of filling between them. The Greeks, however, do not build so; but laying their stones level and building every other stone lengthwise into the thickness, they do not fill the space between, but construct the thickness of their walls in one solid and unbroken mass from the facings to the interior. Further, at intervals they lay single stones which run through the entire thickness of the wall. These stones... by their bonding powers... add very greatly to the solidity of the walls. Chapter VIII, Sec. 7

„Hence buildings made of these kinds of wood last for an unending period of time.“

—  Vitruvius, buch De architectura
De architectura (The Ten Books On Architecture) (~ 15BC), Book II, Context: The hornbeam... is not a wood that breaks easily and is very convenient to handle. Hence the Greeks call it "zygia," because they make of it yokes for their draught animals... Cypress and pine are also just as admirable; for although they... are apt to warp when used in buildings... they can be kept to a great age without rotting because the liquid contained within their substances has a bitter taste which by its pungency prevents the entrance of decay or of those little creatures which are destructive. Hence buildings made of these kinds of wood last for an unending period of time. Chapter IX, Sec. 12

„Travertine and all stone of that class can stand injury“

—  Vitruvius, buch De architectura
De architectura (The Ten Books On Architecture) (~ 15BC), Book II, Context: Travertine and all stone of that class can stand injury whether from a heavy load laid upon it or from the weather; exposure to fire, however, it cannot bear, but splits and cracks to pieces at once. This is because in its natural composition there is but little moisture and not much of the earthy, but a great deal of air and of fire. Therefore, it is not only without the earthy and watery elements, but when fire, expelling the air from it by the operation and force of heat, penetrates into its inmost parts and occupies the empty spaces of the fissures there comes a great glow and the stone is made to burn as fiercely as do the particles of fire itself. Chapter VII, Sec. 2

„As for "wattle and daub" I could wish that it had never been invented.“

—  Vitruvius, buch De architectura
De architectura (The Ten Books On Architecture) (~ 15BC), Book II, Context: As for "wattle and daub" I could wish that it had never been invented. The more it saves in time and gains in space, the greater and the more general is the disaster that it may cause; for it is made to catch fire, like torches. It seems better, therefore, to spend on walls of burnt brick, and be at expense, than to save with "wattle and daub," and be in danger. And, in the stucco covering, too, it makes cracks from the inside by the arrangement of its studs and girts. For these swell with moisture as they are daubed, and then contract as they dry, and by their shrinking cause the solid stucco to split. But since some are obliged to use it either to save time or money, or for partitions on an unsupported span, the proper method of construction is as follows. Give it a high foundation so that it may nowhere come in contact with the broken stone-work composing the floor... Chapter VIII, Sec. 20

„Lay a second foundation enough inside the first“

—  Vitruvius, buch De architectura
De architectura (The Ten Books On Architecture) (~ 15BC), Book I, Context: Lay a second foundation enough inside the first... Having laid these two foundations... build cross walls between them uniting the outer and inner foundation in a comb like arrangement set like teeth of a saw. With this form of construction the burden of earth will be distributed into small bodies and will not lie with all its weight in one crushing mass so as to thrust out substructures. Chapter V, Sec. 7

„As for Mars, when that divinity is enshrined outside the walls, the citizens will never take up arms against each other, and he will defend the city from its enemies and save it from danger in war.“

—  Vitruvius, buch De architectura
De architectura (The Ten Books On Architecture) (~ 15BC), Book I, Context: For the temples, the sites for those of the gods under whose particular protection the state is thought to rest and for Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, should be on the very highest point commanding a view of the greater part of the city. Mercury should be in the forum, or, like Isis and Serapis, in the emporium; Apollo and Father Bacchus near the theater; Hercules at the circus in communities which have no gymnasia nor amphitheatres; Mars outside the city but at the training ground, and so Venus, but at the harbor. It is moreover shown by the Etruscan diviners in treatises on their science that the fanes of Venus, Vulcan, and Mars should be situated outside the walls, in order that the young men and married women may not become habituated in the city to the temptations incident to the worship of Venus, and that buildings may be free from the terror of fires through the religious rites and sacrifices which call the power of Vulcan beyond the walls. As for Mars, when that divinity is enshrined outside the walls, the citizens will never take up arms against each other, and he will defend the city from its enemies and save it from danger in war. Chapter VII, Sec. 1

„After slaking it, mix your mortar“

—  Vitruvius, buch De architectura
De architectura (The Ten Books On Architecture) (~ 15BC), Book II, Context: With regard to lime we must be careful that it is burned from a stone which, whether soft or hard, is in any case white. Lime made of close-grained stone of the harder sort will be good in structural parts; lime of porous stone, in stucco. After slaking it, mix your mortar, if using pitsand, in the proportions of three parts of sand to one of lime; if using river or sea-sand, mix two parts of sand with one of lime. These will be the right proportions for the composition of the mixture. Further, in using river or sea-sand, the addition of a third part composed of burnt brick, pounded up and sifted, will make your mortar of a better composition to use. Chapter V "Lime" Sec. 1

„Let the directions of your streets and alleys be laid down on the lines of division between the quarters of two winds. On this principle of arrangement the disagreeable force of the winds will be shut out from dwellings and lines of houses.“

—  Vitruvius, buch De architectura
De architectura (The Ten Books On Architecture) (~ 15BC), Book I, Context: Let the directions of your streets and alleys be laid down on the lines of division between the quarters of two winds. On this principle of arrangement the disagreeable force of the winds will be shut out from dwellings and lines of houses. For if the streets run full in the face of the winds, their constant blasts rushing in from the open country, and then confined by narrow alleys, will sweep through them with great violence. The lines of houses must therefore be directed away from the quarters from which the winds blow, so that as they come in they may strike against the angles of the blocks and their force thus be broken and dispersed. Chapter VI, Sec. 7-8

„Let the stone be taken from the quarry two years before“

—  Vitruvius, buch De architectura
De architectura (The Ten Books On Architecture) (~ 15BC), Book II, Context: Since, on account of the proximity of the stone-quarries... nearest to the city, necessity drives us to make use of their products, we must proceed as follows if we wish our work to be finished without flaws. Let the stone be taken from the quarry two years before building is to begin, and not in winter, but in summer. Then let it lie exposed in an open place. Such stone as been damaged by the two years of exposure should be used in the foundations. The rest, which remains unhurt, has passed the test of nature and will endure in those parts of the building which are above ground. This precaution should be observed, not only with dimension stone, but also with the rubble which is to be used in walls. Chapter VII, Sec. 5

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„With regard to lime we must be careful that it is burned from a stone which“

—  Vitruvius, buch De architectura
De architectura (The Ten Books On Architecture) (~ 15BC), Book II, Context: With regard to lime we must be careful that it is burned from a stone which, whether soft or hard, is in any case white. Lime made of close-grained stone of the harder sort will be good in structural parts; lime of porous stone, in stucco. After slaking it, mix your mortar, if using pitsand, in the proportions of three parts of sand to one of lime; if using river or sea-sand, mix two parts of sand with one of lime. These will be the right proportions for the composition of the mixture. Further, in using river or sea-sand, the addition of a third part composed of burnt brick, pounded up and sifted, will make your mortar of a better composition to use. Chapter V "Lime" Sec. 1

„Let down a lighted lamp, and if it keeps burning, a man may make the descent without danger.“

—  Vitruvius, buch De architectura
De architectura (The Ten Books On Architecture) (~ 15BC), Book VIII, Context: To guard against this, we must proceed as follows. Let down a lighted lamp, and if it keeps burning, a man may make the descent without danger. Chapter VI, Sec. 13

„If there are no sandpits from which it can be dug, then we must sift it out from river beds or from gravel or even from the sea beach. This kind however has these defects when used in masonry“

—  Vitruvius, buch De architectura
De architectura (The Ten Books On Architecture) (~ 15BC), Book II, Context: If there are no sandpits from which it can be dug, then we must sift it out from river beds or from gravel or even from the sea beach. This kind however has these defects when used in masonry: it dries slowly... and such a wall cannot carry vaultings. Furthermore, when sea-sand is used in walls and these are coated with stucco, a salty efflorescence is given out which spoils the surface. Chapter IV, Sec. 2

„For the temples, the sites for those of the gods under whose particular protection the state is thought to rest“

—  Vitruvius, buch De architectura
De architectura (The Ten Books On Architecture) (~ 15BC), Book I, Context: For the temples, the sites for those of the gods under whose particular protection the state is thought to rest and for Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, should be on the very highest point commanding a view of the greater part of the city. Mercury should be in the forum, or, like Isis and Serapis, in the emporium; Apollo and Father Bacchus near the theater; Hercules at the circus in communities which have no gymnasia nor amphitheatres; Mars outside the city but at the training ground, and so Venus, but at the harbor. It is moreover shown by the Etruscan diviners in treatises on their science that the fanes of Venus, Vulcan, and Mars should be situated outside the walls, in order that the young men and married women may not become habituated in the city to the temptations incident to the worship of Venus, and that buildings may be free from the terror of fires through the religious rites and sacrifices which call the power of Vulcan beyond the walls. As for Mars, when that divinity is enshrined outside the walls, the citizens will never take up arms against each other, and he will defend the city from its enemies and save it from danger in war. Chapter VII, Sec. 1

„The hornbeam… is not a wood that breaks easily and is very convenient to handle.“

—  Vitruvius, buch De architectura
De architectura (The Ten Books On Architecture) (~ 15BC), Book II, Context: The hornbeam... is not a wood that breaks easily and is very convenient to handle. Hence the Greeks call it "zygia," because they make of it yokes for their draught animals... Cypress and pine are also just as admirable; for although they... are apt to warp when used in buildings... they can be kept to a great age without rotting because the liquid contained within their substances has a bitter taste which by its pungency prevents the entrance of decay or of those little creatures which are destructive. Hence buildings made of these kinds of wood last for an unending period of time. Chapter IX, Sec. 12

„Thus a material which cannot last even a little while above ground, endures for a long time when covered with moisture.“

—  Vitruvius, buch De architectura
De architectura (The Ten Books On Architecture) (~ 15BC), Book II, Context: In swampy places, alder piles driven close together beneath the foundations of buildings take in the water which their own consistence lacks and remain imperishable forever, supporting structures of enormous weight and keeping them from decay. Thus a material which cannot last even a little while above ground, endures for a long time when covered with moisture. Chapter IX, Sec. 10

„Cypress and pine are also just as admirable; for although they… are apt to warp“

—  Vitruvius, buch De architectura
De architectura (The Ten Books On Architecture) (~ 15BC), Book II, Context: The hornbeam... is not a wood that breaks easily and is very convenient to handle. Hence the Greeks call it "zygia," because they make of it yokes for their draught animals... Cypress and pine are also just as admirable; for although they... are apt to warp when used in buildings... they can be kept to a great age without rotting because the liquid contained within their substances has a bitter taste which by its pungency prevents the entrance of decay or of those little creatures which are destructive. Hence buildings made of these kinds of wood last for an unending period of time. Chapter IX, Sec. 12

„The trees in sunny neighborhoods“

—  Vitruvius, buch De architectura
De architectura (The Ten Books On Architecture) (~ 15BC), Book II, Context: Trees which grow in places facing the course of the sun are not of porous fiber but are solid, being drained by the dryness... The trees in sunny neighborhoods, therefore, being solidified by the compact texture of their fiber, and not being porous from moisture, are very useful, so far as durability goes, when they are hewn into timber. The lowland firs, being conveyed from sunny places, are better than those highland firs, which are brought here from shady places. Chapter X "Highland and Lowland Fir" Sec. 1

„Further, at intervals they lay single stones which run through the entire thickness of the wall.“

—  Vitruvius, buch De architectura
De architectura (The Ten Books On Architecture) (~ 15BC), Book II, Context: Our workmen, in their hurry to finish, devote themselves only to the facings of the walls, setting them upright but filling the space between with a lot of broken stones and mortar thrown in anyhow. This makes three different sections in the same structure; two consisting of facing and one of filling between them. The Greeks, however, do not build so; but laying their stones level and building every other stone lengthwise into the thickness, they do not fill the space between, but construct the thickness of their walls in one solid and unbroken mass from the facings to the interior. Further, at intervals they lay single stones which run through the entire thickness of the wall. These stones... by their bonding powers... add very greatly to the solidity of the walls. Chapter VIII, Sec. 7

„The larch… is not only preserved from decay and the worm by the great bitterness of its sap, but also it cannot be kindled with fire“

—  Vitruvius, buch De architectura
De architectura (The Ten Books On Architecture) (~ 15BC), Book II, Context: The larch... is not only preserved from decay and the worm by the great bitterness of its sap, but also it cannot be kindled with fire nor ignite of itself, unless like stone in a limekiln it is burned with other wood.... This is because there is a very small proportion of the elements of fire and air in its composition, which is a dense and solid mass of moisture and the earthy, so that it has no open pores through which fire can find its way... Further, its weight will not let it float in water. Chapter IX, Sec. 14

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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