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Alexander der Große

Geburtstag: 20. Juli 356 v.Chr
Todesdatum: 10. Juni 323 v.Chr
Andere Namen: Alexandr Makedonský Veliký, Alexander der Große

Alexander der Große bzw. Alexander III. von Makedonien war von 336 v. Chr. bis zu seinem Tod König von Makedonien und Hegemon des Korinthischen Bundes.

Alexander dehnte die Grenzen des Reiches, das sein Vater Philipp II. aus dem vormals eher unbedeutenden Kleinstaat Makedonien sowie mehreren griechischen Poleis errichtet hatte, durch den sogenannten Alexanderzug und die Eroberung des Achämenidenreichs bis an den indischen Subkontinent aus. Nach seinem Einmarsch in Ägypten wurde er dort als Pharao begrüßt. Nicht zuletzt aufgrund seiner großen militärischen Erfolge wurde das Leben Alexanders ein beliebtes Motiv in Literatur und Kunst, während Alexanders Beurteilung in der modernen Forschung, wie auch schon in der Antike, zwiespältig ausfällt.

Mit seinem Regierungsantritt begann das Zeitalter des Hellenismus, in dem sich die griechische Kultur über weite Teile der damals bekannten Welt ausbreitete. Die kulturellen Prägungen durch die Hellenisierung überstanden den politischen Zusammenbruch des Alexanderreichs und seiner Nachfolgestaaten und wirkten noch jahrhundertelang in Rom und Byzanz fort.

Zitate Alexander der Große

„Wäre ich nicht Alexander, wollte ich Diogenes sein.“

—  Alexander der Große
nach Diogenes' Ausspruch: "Geh mir aus der Sonne."; gemäß Plutarch, Leben des Alexander, 14 und An den unaufgeklärten Herrscher, 5 Original griech.: "εἰ μὴ Ἀλέξανδρος ἤμην, Διογένης ἂν ἤμην." ei mē Alexandros ēmēn, Diogenēs an ēmēn.

„Dem Stärksten.“

—  Alexander der Große
Letzte Worte zu seinen Offizieren, die fragten, wem er sein Reich hinterlassen werde, 10. Juni 323 v.Chr. Original griech.: "κράτιστος."

Citát „There is nothing impossible to him who will try.“

„There is nothing impossible to him who will try.“

—  Alexander the Great
On taking charge of an attack on a fortress, in Pushing to the Front, or, Success under Difficulties : A Book of Inspiration (1896) by Orison Swett Marden, p. 55

„A king does not kill messengers.“

—  Alexander the Great
Context: Now you fear punishment and beg for your lives, so I will let you free, if not for any other reason so that you can see the difference between a Greek king and a barbarian tyrant, so do not expect to suffer any harm from me. A king does not kill messengers. As quoted in the Historia Alexandri Magni of Pseudo-Kallisthenes, 1.37.9-13

„Our enemies are Medes and Persians, men who for centuries have lived soft and luxurious lives; we of Macedon for generations past have been trained in the hard school of danger and war.“

—  Alexander the Great
Context: Our enemies are Medes and Persians, men who for centuries have lived soft and luxurious lives; we of Macedon for generations past have been trained in the hard school of danger and war. Above all, we are free men, and they are slaves. There are Greek troops, to be sure, in Persian service — but how different is their cause from ours! They will be fighting for pay — and not much of at that; we, on the contrary, shall fight for Greece, and our hearts will be in it. As for our foreign troops — Thracians, Paeonians, Illyrians, Agrianes — they are the best and stoutest soldiers in Europe, and they will find as their opponents the slackest and softest of the tribes of Asia. And what, finally, of the two men in supreme command? You have Alexander, they — Darius! Addressing his troops prior to the Battle of Issus, as quoted in Anabasis Alexandri by Arrian Book II, 7

„To the strongest!“

—  Alexander the Great
After being asked, by his generals on his deathbed, who was to succeed him. It has been speculated that his voice may have been indistinct and that he may have said "Krateros" (the name of one of his generals), but Krateros was not around, and the others may have chosen to hear "Kratistos" — the strongest. As quoted in The Mask of Jove: a history of Graeco-Roman civilization from the death of Alexander to the death of Constantine (1966) by Stringfellow Barr, p. 6

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„Your ancestors came to Macedonia and the rest of Hellas [Greece] and did us great harm, though we had done them no prior injury. I have been appointed leader of the Greeks, and wanting to punish the Persians I have come to Asia, which I took from you.“

—  Alexander the Great
Alexander's letter to Persian king Darius III of Persia in response to a truce plea, as quoted in Anabasis Alexandri by Arrian; translated as Anabasis of Alexander by P. A. Brunt, for the "Loeb Edition" Book II 14, 4

„I consider not what Parmenion should receive, but what Alexander should give.“

—  Alexander the Great
On his gifts for the services of others, as quoted in Dictionary of Phrase and Fable: Giving the Derivation, Source, or Origin of Common Phrases, Allusions, and Words That Have A Tale To Tell (1905) by Ebenezer Cobham Brewer, p. 30 Variant: It is not what Parmenio should receive, but what Alexander should give. quoted in Alexander : A History of the Origin and Growth of the Art of War from Earliest Times to the Battle Of Ipsus, B. C. 301 (1899) by Theodore Ayrault Dodge

„Know ye not that the end and object of conquest is to avoid doing the same thing as the conquered?“

—  Alexander the Great
As quoted in Lives by Plutarch, VII, "Demosthenes and Cicero. Alexander and Caesar" (40.2), as translated by Bernadotte Perrin

„There are no more worlds to conquer!“

—  Alexander the Great
Disputed, Statement portrayed as a quotation in a 1927 Reader's Digest article, this probably derives from traditions about Alexander lamenting at his father Philip's victories that there would be no conquests left for him, or that after his conquests in Egypt and Asia there were no worlds left to conquer. Some of the oldest accounts of this, as quoted by John Calvin state that on "hearing that there were other worlds, wept that he had not yet conquered one." This may originate from Plutarch's essay On the Tranquility of Mind, part of the essays Moralia: Alexander wept when he heard Anaxarchus discourse about an infinite number of worlds, and when his friends inquired what ailed him, "Is it not worthy of tears," he said, "that, when the number of worlds is infinite, we have not yet become lords of a single one?" Source: http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Plutarch/Moralia/De_tranquillitate_animi*.html There are no more other worlds to conquer! Variant attributed as his "last words" at a few sites on the internet, but in no published sources.

„What an excellent horse do they lose, for want of address and boldness to manage him! … I could manage this horse better than others do.“

—  Alexander the Great
Statement upon seeing Bucephalas being led away as useless and beyond training, as quoted in Lives by Plutarch, as translated by Arthur Hugh Clough

„If I were not Alexander, I should wish to be Diogenes.“

—  Alexander the Great
After Diogenes of Sinope who was lying in the sun, responded to a query by Alexander asking if he could do anything for him with a reply requesting that he stop blocking his sunlight. As quoted in "On the Fortune of Alexander" by Plutarch, 332 a-b

„An army of sheep led by a lion is better than an army of lions led by a sheep.“

—  Alexander the Great
Disputed, Attributed to Alexander, as quoted in The British Battle Fleet: Its Inception and Growth Throughout the Centuries to the Present Day (1915) by Frederick Thomas Jane, but many variants of similar statements exist which have been attributed to others, though in research done for Wikiquote definite citations of original documents have not yet been found for any of them: I should prefer an army of stags led by a lion, to an army of lions led by a stag. Attributed to Chabrias, who died around the time Alexander was born, thus his is the earliest life to whom such assertions have been attributed; as quoted in A Treatise on the Defence of Fortified Places (1814) by Lazare Carnot, p. 50 An army of stags led by a lion would be better than an army of lions led by a stag. Attributed to Chabrias, A History of Ireland (1857) by Thomas Mooney, p. 760 An army of stags led by a lion is superior to an army of lions led by a stag. Attributed to Chabrias, The New American Cyclopaedia : A Popular Dictionary of General Knowledge (1863), Vol. 4, p. 670 An army of sheep led by a lion are more to be feared than an army of lions led by a sheep. Attributed to Chabrias, The Older We Get, The Better We Were, Marine Corps Sea Stories (2004) by Vince Crawley, p. 67 It is better to have sheep led by a lion than lions led by a sheep. Attributed to Polybius in Between Spenser and Swift: English Writing in Seventeenth Century Ireland (2005) by Deana Rankin, p. 124, citing A Contemporary History of Affairs in Ireland, from 1641 to 1652 (1880) by John Thomas Gilbert Vol. I, i, p. 153 - 157; but conceivably this might be reference to Polybius the historian quoting either Alexander or Chabrias. An army composed of sheep but led by a lion is more powerful than an army of lions led by a sheep. "Proverb" quoted by Agostino Nifo in De Regnandi Peritia (1523) as cited in Machiavelli - The First Century: Studies in Enthusiasm, Hostility, and Irrelevance (2005) by Mathew Thomson, p. 55 Greater is an army of sheep led by a lion, than an army of lions led by a sheep. Attributed to Daniel Defoe (c. 1659 - 1731) I am more afraid of one hundred sheep led by a lion than one hundred lions led by a sheep. Attributed to Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord (1754 – 1838) Variants: I am more afraid of an army of 100 sheep led by a lion than an army of 100 lions led by a sheep. I am not afraid of an army of one hundred lions led by a sheep. I am afraid of army of 100 sheeps led by a lion. Variants quoted as an anonymous proverb: Better a herd of sheep led by a lion than a herd of lions led by a sheep. A flock of sheep led by a lion was more powerful than a flock of lions led by a sheep. An army of sheep led by a lion would defeat an army of lions led by a sheep. It were better to have an army of sheep led by a lion than an army of lions led by a sheep. An army of sheep led by a lion, will defeat an army of lions led by a sheep. An army of sheep led by a lion would be superior to an army of lions led by a sheep. Unsourced attribution to Alexander: I would not fear a pack of lions led by a sheep, but I would always fear a flock of sheep led by a lion. As one lion overcomes many people and as one wolf scatters many sheep, so likewise will I, with one word, destroy the peoples who have come against me. This slightly similar statement is the only quote relating to lions in The History of Alexander the Great, Being the Syriac Version of the Pseudo-Callisthenes (1889) as translated by E. A. Wallis Budge, but it is attributed to Nectanebus (Nectanebo II).

„So would I, if I were Parmenion.“

—  Alexander the Great
As quoted in Lives by Plutarch, after Parmenion suggested to him after the Battle of Issus that he should accept Darius III of Persia's offer of an alliance, the hand of his daughter in marriage, and all Minor Asia, saying "If I were Alexander, I would accept the terms" (Variant translation: I would accept it if I were Alexander). Variants: I too, if I were Parmenion. But I am Alexander. So would I, if I were Parmenion. So should I, if I were Parmenion. So should I, if I were Parmenion: but as I am Alexander, I cannot. I would do it if I was Parmenion, but I am Alexander. If I were Parmenion, that is what I would do. But I am Alexander and so will answer in another way. So would I, if I were Parmenion, but I am Alexander, so I will send Darius a different answer. If I were Perdicas, I shall not fail to tell you, I would have endorsed this arrangement at once, but I am Alexander, and I shall not do it. (as quoted from medieval French romances in The Medieval French Alexander (2002) by Donald Maddox and Sara Sturm-Maddox, p. 81)

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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