Zitate von Gisela Bleibtreu-Ehrenberg

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Gisela Bleibtreu-Ehrenberg

Geburtstag: 2. August 1929

Gisela Ingeborg Bleibtreu-Ehrenberg ist eine deutsche Soziologin mit Arbeits- und Forschungsschwerpunkten in Psychologie, Ethnologie, vergleichender indogermanischer Sprachwissenschaft, vergleichender Religionswissenschaft und Philosophie sowie der Anthropologie.

Zitate Gisela Bleibtreu-Ehrenberg

„Alle Menschen gehören als Gattung zu den gruppenhaft lebenden Geschöpfen, was lebensgefährdende innerartliche Aggression von vornherein ausschließt. Mit anderen Worten: Hätten schon in der Vergangenheit unserer Spezies solch schwere Konflikte […] geherrscht wie während der letzten rund viereinhalb Jahrtausende und noch gegenwärtig, dann wären wir niemals zu Menschen geworden, sondern längst vorher ausgestorben. Denn Wesen, die als einzelne Individuen im Vergleich zu den vielen Raubtieren, die ihnen nachstellen, derart schwach und hilflos sind wie wir, brauchen Deckung und Rückhalt von anderen der gleichen Art, um überleben zu können. Wir haben weder Klauen noch Reißzähne, noch genug Muskelkraft, um allein unseren großen Freßfeinden erfolgreich Widerstand zu leisten, doch in der Gruppe gelingt es, wenn auch nie ohne selbstlose Opfer und Mut. In jener fernen Frühzeit, als unsere vormenschlichen Ahnen anfingen, in Trupps zu leben, um sich bei Gefahr zusammenzuschließen und einander beizustehen, haben sie ein Verhalten entwickelt, das man 'soziale Intelligenz' nennt: Die Fähigkeit, mit Angehörigen der eigenen Gattung zusammenzuwirken, um das Gedeihen aller zu gewährleisten. Dies Potential haben wir auch jetzt noch, aber es erweist sich als nachhaltig gestört.

[…]

Es muß sich um eine friedliche Welt gehandelt haben, weil die frühen Siedlungen zumeist nicht gegen menschliche Feinde gesichert sind. Für ein, zwei Jahrtausende [nach der letzten Eiszeit] haben Menschen in solchen Lebensverhältnissen offenbar ein glückliches Dasein verbracht.“

—  Gisela Bleibtreu-Ehrenberg

Vom Schmetterling zur Doppelaxt (1990)

„Um es vorwegzunehmen: Jene dargelegte 'kultische Dominanz' der Frau ist kein Matriarchat oder Feminat gewesen; zu der Sozialstruktur, die wir heute 'Patriarchat' nennen, hat es niemals ein weibliches Pendant gegeben. […] Nichtsdestoweniger sind einige der Befunde, worauf die alten Ethnologen und Soziologen (und Sozialisten) ihre falschen weltumspannenden Theoreme aufbauten, tatsächlich wahr und in der Realität bei einigen Naturvölkern heute noch vorfindbar, nur müssen sie besser gedeutet werden als vordem, nämlich objektiver. Und insofern sollte eher von maternalen denn von matriachalen Kulturelementen gesprochen werden, wenn man solch kulturell-soziale Zusammenhänge unter globalem Aspekt anspricht. […]

Jedenfalls zählen zu den kulturellen Zügen, um die es hier geht, zusammengefaßt etwa folgende, die heute nurmehr selten irgendwo alle gleichzeitig auftreten:

In der Erbfolgereglung wird die mütterliche Linie gewählt, Kinder gehören stets zur Mutterseite. Eigentum, gelegentlich auch Rechte werden in der mütterlichen Linie vererbt (entweder von der Mutter auf die Tochter oder vom Mutterbruder auf den Schwestersohn). Es herrscht sog. matrilokale Wohnfolge, d. h. der Ehemann tritt in die Sippe der Frau ein und wohnt dort. Bei beiden Geschlechtern herrscht voreheliche sexuelle Ungebundenheit, bei den Mädchen weitgehende Freiheit in der Gattenwahl und große Selbständigkeit in der Ehe mit leichter Scheidungsmöglichkeit für die Frau. Die weibliche Stellung in Kult und Religion ist relevanter als die der Männer. Der biologische Vater gilt als mit seinen Kindern nicht verwandt; seine Stelle nimmt, was Erziehung und Fürsorge betrifft, der Mutterbruder ein: Er ist der soziale Vater für alle Kinder seiner Schwester, auch wenn diese von verschiedenen Vätern stammen. […]

Das ganze Denkmuster, das hier nur extrem knapp umrissen wird, gibt im Grunde keinen Hinweis darauf, daß die betreffenden Menschen die Zusammenhänge zwischen Zeugung und Geburt gekannt hätten.“

—  Gisela Bleibtreu-Ehrenberg

Vom Schmetterling zur Doppelaxt (1990)

„The cultural traits we are dealing with here, and that in the modern period have become extremely rare in this combination, may be summarised as the following:

Lineal descent was maternal, children were regarded as descendant from the mother. Property, at times also authorisations were passed down the maternal line, either from mother to daughter or from maternal uncle to the son on the sister's side of the family. Residential affairs were matrifocal, i. e. a husband joined the bride's family and he moved in with them. Both sexes were free to be promiscuous prior to marriage, whereas females were free to choose their marital spouse, they were entitled to wide-reaching rights even as wifes, and it was easy for them to get a divorce. The ritual and religious role of females was more relevant than that of males. Biological fathers were not considered related to their children, their role as educator and caretaker was held by the mother's brother who was the social father for all of her children, even if they were fathered by different men.“

—  Gisela Bleibtreu-Ehrenberg

Vom Schmetterling zur Doppelaxt, p. 16-18, last sentence p. 15-16.
Vom Schmetterling zur Doppelaxt (1990)
Kontext: Let it be said in advance: This 'ritual dominance' of females was by no means whatsoever a matriarchy, for there never existed a female aequivalent to the social structure we refer to as 'patriarchy' today. [... ] Yet, a number of the findings which 19th century ethnologists and sociologists (even socialists) based off their figments of a proto-historical global matriarchy are certainly valid, and some of these features are empirically observable in primitive peoples even today. These findings only require to be interpreted more reasonably, that is less biased to one side or the other. Thus, one is more justified in speaking of maternal rather than "matriarchal" cultural elements when addressing these socio-cultural affairs. [... ]

The cultural traits we are dealing with here, and that in the modern period have become extremely rare in this combination, may be summarised as the following:

Lineal descent was maternal, children were regarded as descendant from the mother. Property, at times also authorisations were passed down the maternal line, either from mother to daughter or from maternal uncle to the son on the sister's side of the family. Residential affairs were matrifocal, i. e. a husband joined the bride's family and he moved in with them. Both sexes were free to be promiscuous prior to marriage, whereas females were free to choose their marital spouse, they were entitled to wide-reaching rights even as wifes, and it was easy for them to get a divorce. The ritual and religious role of females was more relevant than that of males. Biological fathers were not considered related to their children, their role as educator and caretaker was held by the mother's brother who was the social father for all of her children, even if they were fathered by different men. [... ]

Having only briefly summarised the dominant social order above, none of these traits we know hint in the slightest towards the idea that the people [of the Maternal Megalith Culture] in question were at their time aware of the causal relation between sex and giving birth.

„As cause of any particular evaluation of“

—  Gisela Bleibtreu-Ehrenberg

Der pädophile Impuls - Wie lernt ein junger Mensch Sexualität? (The Paedophile Impulse: Toward the Development of an Aetiology of Child-Adult Sexual Contacts from an Ethological and Ethnological Viewpoint, transl. Hubert Kennedy) (1985/88).
Der pädophile Impuls (1985/88)
Kontext: As cause of any particular evaluation of [any particular] sexuality [... ], the following may be agreed upon in general: The respective racial traditions with their myths, their genesis and fertility legends, and further the cultural characteristics of the groups in question, treated as geographically spread out as viewed in connection with race, language (language families), lineal descent (patriarchal or matriarchal), as well as their economic and ecological particularities. Religion, economic relations, natural resources along with the ecological environment all together (also their changes in the course of time!) prove themselves to be directly related to one another everywhere.

„Wherever people prefer to call upon "offenses against moral sentience", upon "moral terms" rather than adhere to one's rationally derived scientific criminological approach“

—  Gisela Bleibtreu-Ehrenberg

Tabu Homosexualität - Die Geschichte eines Vorurteils (1978; reprinted in 1981 as Homosexualität - Die Geschichte eines Vorurteils), p. 321.
Tabu Homosexualität (1978)
Kontext: Wherever people prefer to call upon "offenses against moral sentience", upon "moral terms" rather than adhere to one's rationally derived scientific criminological approach [dividing irrational, ethnocentric "moral offenses" from actual crimes], one is fully justified in speaking of prejudice's total victory over reason.

„It must have been a peaceful world, for early settlements at large exhibited no fortifications regarding human attacks. For maybe one or two millennia“

—  Gisela Bleibtreu-Ehrenberg

Vom Schmetterling zur Doppelaxt: Die Umwertung von Weiblichkeit in unserer Kultur (1990), p. 9, 11.
Vom Schmetterling zur Doppelaxt (1990)
Kontext: Humans belong to the category of herding animals, due to which intra-species aggression at a life-endangering level is obviated. In other words: If, for some reason or another, severe conflicts [... ] of the kind common since the last circa four-and-a-half millennia would have occured during the time of our hominisation, our ancestors would have completely eradicated each other and homo sapiens would have never set foot on earth. For a species that in its individuals was so weak when confronted with many predators preying after them required support from its kind in order to survive. We possess neither claws nor fangs nor the strength to successfully withstand the larger carnivores all alone, however it is as a group that we may survive together though never without sacrifice and courage. When our non-human ancestors began living in packs in order to stand together when facing hazards, they developed a behaviour that we may term 'social intelligence', which is the ability to co-operate with one's species in order to maintain the well-being of all. Modern homo sapiens still possesses this potential, however our culture has effectively damaged it.

[... ]

It must have been a peaceful world, for early settlements at large exhibited no fortifications regarding human attacks. For maybe one or two millennia [after the end of the last glacial epoch], humans obviously lived an untroubled life under these social conditions.

„The proto-historic religious festivities“

—  Gisela Bleibtreu-Ehrenberg

Vom Schmetterling zur Doppelaxt, p. 22-23.
Vom Schmetterling zur Doppelaxt (1990)
Kontext: The proto-historic religious festivities [of the Maternal Megalith Culture] were strongly sexual in nature. They commonly culminated in what today is referred to as group sex and is socially regarded as extremely negative nowadays. In fact, the inherent potential of sexuality is to decrease social conflict, for indeed sexual activity not only gratifies, it pacifies as well. Our biological anthropological heritage disposes humanity to far more diverse varieties of sexual behaviours than our modern repressive culture permits or deems 'socially acceptable'. Abhorring them as unmentionable immoralities, white colonial masters often gladly took to using all the sexual customs of many autochtonous peoples as excuses to oppress and severely decimate the tribes in question, even doing so with a perfect peace of conscience. Islam's campaigners in the Orient, pioneers of Confucianism in China, and Caucasian Christians used their best endeavours to destroy root and branch of all surviving sexual rites they came across; that which had priorly been sacred practice became re-defined as sinful lewdness and perversion. These religious processes yielded widespread absence of such customs even in many primitive cultures by the modern period. Similar proto-historic customs [of the Maternal Megalith Culture] were wiped out in a comparable fashion [by Indo-Europeans], with structurally similar yet not identical reasonings given, for all patriarchal ethnics regard orgiastic indulgences as corruptive to their social fabric.

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„Having only briefly summarised the dominant social order above, none of these traits we know hint in the slightest towards the idea that the people“

—  Gisela Bleibtreu-Ehrenberg

Vom Schmetterling zur Doppelaxt, p. 16-18, last sentence p. 15-16.
Vom Schmetterling zur Doppelaxt (1990)
Kontext: Let it be said in advance: This 'ritual dominance' of females was by no means whatsoever a matriarchy, for there never existed a female aequivalent to the social structure we refer to as 'patriarchy' today. [... ] Yet, a number of the findings which 19th century ethnologists and sociologists (even socialists) based off their figments of a proto-historical global matriarchy are certainly valid, and some of these features are empirically observable in primitive peoples even today. These findings only require to be interpreted more reasonably, that is less biased to one side or the other. Thus, one is more justified in speaking of maternal rather than "matriarchal" cultural elements when addressing these socio-cultural affairs. [... ]

The cultural traits we are dealing with here, and that in the modern period have become extremely rare in this combination, may be summarised as the following:

Lineal descent was maternal, children were regarded as descendant from the mother. Property, at times also authorisations were passed down the maternal line, either from mother to daughter or from maternal uncle to the son on the sister's side of the family. Residential affairs were matrifocal, i. e. a husband joined the bride's family and he moved in with them. Both sexes were free to be promiscuous prior to marriage, whereas females were free to choose their marital spouse, they were entitled to wide-reaching rights even as wifes, and it was easy for them to get a divorce. The ritual and religious role of females was more relevant than that of males. Biological fathers were not considered related to their children, their role as educator and caretaker was held by the mother's brother who was the social father for all of her children, even if they were fathered by different men. [... ]

Having only briefly summarised the dominant social order above, none of these traits we know hint in the slightest towards the idea that the people [of the Maternal Megalith Culture] in question were at their time aware of the causal relation between sex and giving birth.

„Let it be said in advance: This 'ritual dominance' of females was by no means whatsoever a matriarchy, for there never existed a female aequivalent to the social structure we refer to as 'patriarchy' today.“

—  Gisela Bleibtreu-Ehrenberg

Vom Schmetterling zur Doppelaxt, p. 16-18, last sentence p. 15-16.
Vom Schmetterling zur Doppelaxt (1990)
Kontext: Let it be said in advance: This 'ritual dominance' of females was by no means whatsoever a matriarchy, for there never existed a female aequivalent to the social structure we refer to as 'patriarchy' today. [... ] Yet, a number of the findings which 19th century ethnologists and sociologists (even socialists) based off their figments of a proto-historical global matriarchy are certainly valid, and some of these features are empirically observable in primitive peoples even today. These findings only require to be interpreted more reasonably, that is less biased to one side or the other. Thus, one is more justified in speaking of maternal rather than "matriarchal" cultural elements when addressing these socio-cultural affairs. [... ]

The cultural traits we are dealing with here, and that in the modern period have become extremely rare in this combination, may be summarised as the following:

Lineal descent was maternal, children were regarded as descendant from the mother. Property, at times also authorisations were passed down the maternal line, either from mother to daughter or from maternal uncle to the son on the sister's side of the family. Residential affairs were matrifocal, i. e. a husband joined the bride's family and he moved in with them. Both sexes were free to be promiscuous prior to marriage, whereas females were free to choose their marital spouse, they were entitled to wide-reaching rights even as wifes, and it was easy for them to get a divorce. The ritual and religious role of females was more relevant than that of males. Biological fathers were not considered related to their children, their role as educator and caretaker was held by the mother's brother who was the social father for all of her children, even if they were fathered by different men. [... ]

Having only briefly summarised the dominant social order above, none of these traits we know hint in the slightest towards the idea that the people [of the Maternal Megalith Culture] in question were at their time aware of the causal relation between sex and giving birth.

„Humans belong to the category of herding animals, due to which intra-species aggression at a life-endangering level is obviated. In other words: If, for some reason or another, severe conflicts“

—  Gisela Bleibtreu-Ehrenberg

Vom Schmetterling zur Doppelaxt: Die Umwertung von Weiblichkeit in unserer Kultur (1990), p. 9, 11.
Vom Schmetterling zur Doppelaxt (1990)
Kontext: Humans belong to the category of herding animals, due to which intra-species aggression at a life-endangering level is obviated. In other words: If, for some reason or another, severe conflicts [... ] of the kind common since the last circa four-and-a-half millennia would have occured during the time of our hominisation, our ancestors would have completely eradicated each other and homo sapiens would have never set foot on earth. For a species that in its individuals was so weak when confronted with many predators preying after them required support from its kind in order to survive. We possess neither claws nor fangs nor the strength to successfully withstand the larger carnivores all alone, however it is as a group that we may survive together though never without sacrifice and courage. When our non-human ancestors began living in packs in order to stand together when facing hazards, they developed a behaviour that we may term 'social intelligence', which is the ability to co-operate with one's species in order to maintain the well-being of all. Modern homo sapiens still possesses this potential, however our culture has effectively damaged it.

[... ]

It must have been a peaceful world, for early settlements at large exhibited no fortifications regarding human attacks. For maybe one or two millennia [after the end of the last glacial epoch], humans obviously lived an untroubled life under these social conditions.

„Yet, a number of the findings which 19th century ethnologists and sociologists (even socialists) based off their figments of a proto-historical global matriarchy are certainly valid, and some of these features are empirically observable in primitive peoples even today. These findings only require to be interpreted more reasonably, that is less biased to one side or the other. Thus, one is more justified in speaking of maternal rather than "matriarchal" cultural elements when addressing these socio-cultural affairs.“

—  Gisela Bleibtreu-Ehrenberg

Vom Schmetterling zur Doppelaxt, p. 16-18, last sentence p. 15-16.
Vom Schmetterling zur Doppelaxt (1990)
Kontext: Let it be said in advance: This 'ritual dominance' of females was by no means whatsoever a matriarchy, for there never existed a female aequivalent to the social structure we refer to as 'patriarchy' today. [... ] Yet, a number of the findings which 19th century ethnologists and sociologists (even socialists) based off their figments of a proto-historical global matriarchy are certainly valid, and some of these features are empirically observable in primitive peoples even today. These findings only require to be interpreted more reasonably, that is less biased to one side or the other. Thus, one is more justified in speaking of maternal rather than "matriarchal" cultural elements when addressing these socio-cultural affairs. [... ]

The cultural traits we are dealing with here, and that in the modern period have become extremely rare in this combination, may be summarised as the following:

Lineal descent was maternal, children were regarded as descendant from the mother. Property, at times also authorisations were passed down the maternal line, either from mother to daughter or from maternal uncle to the son on the sister's side of the family. Residential affairs were matrifocal, i. e. a husband joined the bride's family and he moved in with them. Both sexes were free to be promiscuous prior to marriage, whereas females were free to choose their marital spouse, they were entitled to wide-reaching rights even as wifes, and it was easy for them to get a divorce. The ritual and religious role of females was more relevant than that of males. Biological fathers were not considered related to their children, their role as educator and caretaker was held by the mother's brother who was the social father for all of her children, even if they were fathered by different men. [... ]

Having only briefly summarised the dominant social order above, none of these traits we know hint in the slightest towards the idea that the people [of the Maternal Megalith Culture] in question were at their time aware of the causal relation between sex and giving birth.

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