Context: This is one of the most intricate problems of religion. For if you look into the traditional arguments () about this problem you will find them contradictory; such also being the case with arguments of reason. The contradiction in the arguments of the first kind is found in the Qur'an and the Hadith. Part 3: Of Fate And Predestination; Opening sentence
Zitate von Averroes
Geburtstag: 14. April 1126
Todesdatum: 10. Dezember 1198
Averroës war ein andalusischer Philosoph, Jurist, Arzt und arabischsprachiger Schriftsteller. Er war Hofarzt der berberischen Dynastie der Almohaden von Marokko.
Averroës verfasste eine medizinische Enzyklopädie und fast zu jedem Werk des Aristoteles einen Kommentar. In der christlichen Scholastik des Mittelalters, auf die er großen Einfluss ausübte, wurde er deshalb schlicht als „Der Kommentator“ bezeichnet, so wie Aristoteles nur „der Philosoph“ genannt wurde.
Averroës sah in der Logik die einzige Möglichkeit des Menschen, glücklich zu werden. Die Logik lieferte für ihn die Möglichkeit, aus den Daten der Sinne zur Erkenntnis der Wahrheit zu kommen. Die Logik war für ihn das Gesetz des Denkens und der Wahrheit.
Jacob Anatoli übersetzte seine Werke aus dem Arabischen ins Hebräische.
„To master this instrument the religious thinker must make a preliminary study of logic, just as the lawyer must study legal reasoning. This is no more heretical in the one case than in the other. And logic must be learned from the ancient masters, regardless of the fact that they were not Muslims.“
In: Jon McGinnis, David C. Reisman (2007) Classical Arabic Philosophy: An Anthology of Sources. p. 310
„If we admit the existence of the prophetic mission, by putting the idea of possibility, which is in fact ignorance, in place of certainty, and make miracles a proof of the truth of man who claims to be a prophet it becomes necessary that they should not be used by a person, who says that they can be performed by others than prophets, as the Mutakallimun do.“
Part 2: The Advent of the Prophets; Opening sentence
„Praise be to God with all due praise, and a prayer for Muhammad His chosen servant and apostle. The purpose of this treatise is to examine, from the standpoint of the study of the Law, whether the study of philosophy and logic is allowed by the Law, or prohibited, or commanded either by way of recommendation or as obligatory.“
Attributed to Averroes, in: John Bartlett (1968) Familiar Qutations. p. 155
„If teleological study of the world is philosophy, and if the Law commands such a study, then the Law commands philosophy.“
FM 44 as cited in: Oliver Leaman (2002) An Introduction to Classical Islamic Philosophy, p. 179
„There is no city that is truly one other than this city that we [anahnti] are involved in bringing forth.“
Averroes, Ralph Lerner (1974) Averroes On Plato's Republic. p. xxiv
„The necessary connexion of movement and time is real and time is something the soul (dhihn) constructs in movement.“
As cited in "Being and Language in Averroes' “Tahafut At-Tahafut” (2003)by Massimo Campanini
„The Law teaches that the universe was invented and created by God, and that it did not come into being by chance or by itself.“
Part 1: The Creation of the Universe; Opening sentence
„[In the introduction to his Middle Commentary on Aristotle's Topics, Averroes said] This art has three parts. The first part sets forth the speeches from which dialectical conversation is composed — i. e., its parts, and the parts of its parts on to its simplest components. This part is found in the first treatise on Aristotle's book.
The second part sets forth the topics from which syllogisms are drawn — syllogisms for affirming something or denying it with respect to every kind of problem occurring in this art. This is the next six treatises of Aristotle's book
The third part set forth how The third part sets forth how the questioner ought to question and the answerer answer. It also sets forth how many kinds of questions and answers there are. This is in the eighth treatise of Aristotle's book.“
Averroës, Charles Edwin Butterworth (1977) Averroës' Three Short Commentaries on Aristotle's "Topics,". p. 92
„Philosophers do not claim that God does not know particulars; they rather claim that He does not know them the way humans do. God knows particulars as their Creator whereas humans know them as a privileged creations of God might know them.“
Attributed to Averroes in Voices of Islam: Voices of change (2007) by Vincent J. Cornell, p. 35
„After logic we must proceed to philosophy proper. Here too we have to learn from our predecessors, just as in mathematics and law. Thus it is wrong to forbid the study of ancient philosophy. Harm from it is accidental, like harm from taking medicine, drinking water, or studying law.“