Zitate von Wilhelm von Ockham

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Wilhelm von Ockham

Geburtstag: 1285
Todesdatum: 9. April 1349
Andere Namen: Wilhelm von Occam

Wilhelm von Ockham, englisch William of Ockham oder Occam , war ein berühmter mittelalterlicher Philosoph, Theologe und kirchenpolitischer Schriftsteller in der Epoche der Spätscholastik. Er wird traditionell, aber ungenau als einer der Hauptvertreter des Nominalismus bezeichnet. Sein umfangreiches philosophisches Werk enthält Arbeiten zur Logik, Naturphilosophie, Erkenntnistheorie, Wissenschaftstheorie, Metaphysik, Ethik und politischen Philosophie.

Zitate Wilhelm von Ockham

„Eine Mehrheit darf nie ohne Not zugrunde gelegt werden.“

—  Wilhelm von Ockham

Original lat.: "Numquam ponenda est pluralitas sine necessitate"
Übersetzung engl.: "Plurality is never to be posited without necessity."
Variante: Eine Mehrheit darf ohne Not nicht zugrunde gelegt werden.
Quelle: Anm.: Übersetzung Wikiquote

„Umsonst geschieht mit Hilfe einer Mehrheit, was sich mit weniger tun lässt.“

—  Wilhelm von Ockham

Original lat.: "Frustra fit per plura, quod potest fieri per pauciora."
Übersetzung engl.: "It is pointless to do with more what can be done with fewer."
Quelle: zitiert nach Christiane Schildknecht: Der Dualismus und die Rettung der Phänomene, in Gereon Wolters, Martin Carrier: Homo Sapiens und Homo Faber. Epistemische und technische Rationalitat in Antike und Gegenwart, S.227 books.google http://books.google.at/books?id=LuQdd6tVjZoC&pg=PA227&q=pluralitas, 2004. ISBN 3110178850
Quelle: zitiert nach: Paul Newall: http://www.galilean-library.org/site/index.php/page/index.html/_/essays/philosophyofscience/ockhams-razor-r55 (2005)

„Entitäten dürfen nicht über das Notwendige hinaus vermehrt werden.“

—  Wilhelm von Ockham

tatsächlich von John Ponce of Cork
Original lat.: "Entia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem"
Übersetzung engl.: "Entities should not be multiplied without necessity."
Fälschlich zugeschrieben
Quelle: William Thorburn: https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Myth_of_Occam's_Razor, in: Mind 27 (1918), 345-353.

„It is pointless to do with more what can be done with fewer.“

—  William of Ockham

Summa Totius Logicae, i. 12, cited in "Ockham's Razor" by Paul Newall at Galilean Library (25 June 2005) http://www.galilean-library.org/manuscript.php?postid=43832
Original: (la) Frustra fit per plura, quod potest fieri per pauciora.

„Logic is the most useful tool of all the arts. Without it no science can be fully known.“

—  William of Ockham, buch Sum of Logic

Summa Logicae (c. 1323), Prefatory Letter, as translated by Paul Vincent Spade (1995) http://www.pvspade.com/Logic/docs/ockham.pdf
Kontext: Logic is the most useful tool of all the arts. Without it no science can be fully known. It is not worn out by repeated use, after the manner of material tools, but rather admits of continual growth through the diligent exercise of any other science. For just as a mechanic who lacks a complete knowledge of his tool gains a fuller [knowledge] by using it, so one who is educated in the firm principles of logic, while he painstakingly devotes his labor to the other sciences, acquires at the same time a greater skill at this art.

„It is on account of theology alone that any assertion whatsoever should be called catholic or heretical.“

—  William of Ockham

Vol. I, Book 1, Ch. 2 http://www.britac.ac.uk/pubs/dialogus/t1d1.html, as translated by John Kilcullen and John Scott (2003).
Dialogus (1494)
Kontext: It is on account of theology alone that any assertion whatsoever should be called catholic or heretical. For only an assertion which is consonant with theology is truly catholic, and only one which is known to be opposed to theology is known to be heretical. For if some assertion were found to be opposed to decrees of the highest pontiffs, or also of general councils or also to laws of the emperors, nevertheless, if it were not in conflict with theology, even if it could be considered false, erroneous or unjust, it should not be counted as a heresy.

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„You see that I have set out opposing assertions in response to your question and I have touched on quite strong arguments in support of each position. Therefore consider now which seems the more probable to you.“

—  William of Ockham

Vol. I, Book 1, Ch. 2.
Dialogus (1494)
Kontext: The Holy Spirit through blessed John the evangelist makes a terrible threat against those who add anything to or take anything from divine scripture when he says in the last chapter of Revelations [22:18–9], "If any man shall add to these things, God shall add unto him the plagues which are in this book. And if any man shall take away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take his part out of the book of life and out of the holy city, and from these things that are written in this book." We clearly gather from all these that nothing should be added to sacred scripture nor anything removed from it. To decide by way of teaching, therefore, which assertion should be considered catholic, which heretical, chiefly pertains to theologians, the experts on divine scripture.
You see that I have set out opposing assertions in response to your question and I have touched on quite strong arguments in support of each position. Therefore consider now which seems the more probable to you.

„The head of Christians does not, as a rule, have power to punish secular wrongs with a capital penalty and other bodily penalties and it is for thus punishing such wrongs that temporal power and riches are chiefly necessary; such punishment is granted chiefly to the secular power.“

—  William of Ockham

"A Letter to the Friars Minor" (1334) as translated in A Letter to the Friars Minor and other Writings (1995) edited by A. S. McGrade and John Kilcullen, p. 204.
Kontext: The head of Christians does not, as a rule, have power to punish secular wrongs with a capital penalty and other bodily penalties and it is for thus punishing such wrongs that temporal power and riches are chiefly necessary; such punishment is granted chiefly to the secular power. The pope therefore, can, as a rule, correct wrongdoers only with a spiritual penalty. It is not, therefore, necessary that he should excel in temporal power or abound in temporal riches, but it is enough that Christians should willingly obey him.

„Entities should not be multiplied beyond necessity.“

—  William of Ockham

Though widely cited as Occam's razor, this popular wording is not found in his extant works.
Misattributed
Original: (la) Entia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem.

„The Holy Spirit through blessed John the evangelist makes a terrible threat against those who add anything to or take anything from divine scripture when he says in the last chapter of Revelations [22:18–9], "If any man shall add to these things, God shall add unto him the plagues which are in this book. And if any man shall take away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take his part out of the book of life and out of the holy city, and from these things that are written in this book."“

—  William of Ockham

We clearly gather from all these that nothing should be added to sacred scripture nor anything removed from it. To decide by way of teaching, therefore, which assertion should be considered catholic, which heretical, chiefly pertains to theologians, the experts on divine scripture.
You see that I have set out opposing assertions in response to your question and I have touched on quite strong arguments in support of each position. Therefore consider now which seems the more probable to you.
Vol. I, Book 1, Ch. 2.
Dialogus (1494)

„Plurality is never to be posited without necessity.“

—  William of Ockham

Quaestiones et decisiones in quattuor libros Sententiarum Petri Lombardi [Questions and the decisions of the Sentences of Peter Lombard] (1495), i, dist. 27, qu. 2, K; also in The Development of Logic (1962), by William Calvert Kneale, p. 243; similar statements were common among Scholastic philosophers, at least as early as John Duns (Duns Scotus).
Pluralitas non est ponenda sine necessitate.
As cited in "The Myth of Occam's Razor" by William Thorburn, in Mind, Vol. 27 (1918), 345–353.
Original: (la) Numquam ponenda est pluralitas sine necessitate

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