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Meng Zi

Geburtstag: 372 v.Chr
Todesdatum: 289 v.Chr
Andere Namen:Meng-C' Lat. Mencius

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Mengzi war der bedeutendste Nachfolger des Konfuzius . Er reformierte dessen philosophische Richtung und entwickelte sie weiter. So konnte der Konfuzianismus unter der Han-Dynastie zur chinesischen Staatsphilosophie aufsteigen. Mengzis Werk gilt bis heute als sehr bedeutend.

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„He who outrages benevolence is called a ruffian: he who outrages righteousness is called a villain.“

—  Mencius
Context: He who outrages benevolence is called a ruffian: he who outrages righteousness is called a villain. I have heard of the cutting off of the villain Chow, but I have not heard of the putting of a ruler to death. 1B:8, In relation to righteousness and the overthrow of the tyrannous King Zhou of Shang, as translated in China (1904) by Sir Robert Kennaway Douglas, p. 8 Variant translations: The ruffian and the villain we call a mere fellow. I have heard of killing the fellow Chou; I have not heard of killing a king. As translated in Free China Review, Vol. 5 (1955) I have merely heard of killing a villain Zhou, but I have not heard of murdering the ruler. 1B:8 as translated by Wing-tsit Chan in A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy (1963), p. 78

„Having these Four Beginnings, but saying that they cannot develop them is to destroy themselves.“

—  Mencius
Context: The feeling of commiseration is the beginning of humanity; the feeling of shame and dislike is the beginning of righteousness; the feeling of deference and compliance is the beginning of propriety; and the feeling of right or wrong is the beginning of wisdom. Men have these Four Beginnings just as they have their four limbs. Having these Four Beginnings, but saying that they cannot develop them is to destroy themselves. 2A:6, as translated by Wing-tsit Chan in A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy (1963), p. 65 Variant translation: The sense of compassion is the beginning of benevolence; the sense of shame the beginning of righteousness; the sense of modesty the beginning of decorum; the sense of right and wrong the beginning of wisdom. Man possesses these four beginnings just as he possesses four limbs. Anyone possessing these four and saying that he can not do what is required of him is abasing himself.

„Why must your Majesty use that word 'profit'? What I am provided with, are counsels to benevolence and righteousness, and these are my only topics.“

—  Mencius
Context: Mencius went to see King Huei of Liang. The king said, "Venerable sir, since you have not counted it far to come here, a distance of a thousand li, may I presume that you are provided with counsels to profit my kingdom?" Mencius replied, "Why must your Majesty use that word 'profit'? What I am provided with, are counsels to benevolence and righteousness, and these are my only topics." Book 1, part 1, as translated by James Legge in The Life and Works of Mencius (1875), p. 124<!--. Variant translation: Once [Mencius] visited a king, and the king asked him, "Old teacher, how can my country profit from your presence?" Mencius immediately replied, "Why do you speak of profit, sire? Isn't there also the sense of mercy and the sense of right?" As translated by Lin Yutang in From Pagan to Christian (1959), p. 90-->

„The feeling of commiseration is the beginning of humanity“

—  Mencius
Context: The feeling of commiseration is the beginning of humanity; the feeling of shame and dislike is the beginning of righteousness; the feeling of deference and compliance is the beginning of propriety; and the feeling of right or wrong is the beginning of wisdom. Men have these Four Beginnings just as they have their four limbs. Having these Four Beginnings, but saying that they cannot develop them is to destroy themselves. 2A:6, as translated by Wing-tsit Chan in A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy (1963), p. 65 Variant translation: The sense of compassion is the beginning of benevolence; the sense of shame the beginning of righteousness; the sense of modesty the beginning of decorum; the sense of right and wrong the beginning of wisdom. Man possesses these four beginnings just as he possesses four limbs. Anyone possessing these four and saying that he can not do what is required of him is abasing himself.

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„The great man is the one who does not lose his child's heart.“

—  Mencius
Book 4, pt. 2, v. 12 Variant translations by Lin Yutang: A great man is one who has not lost the child's heart.<!-- (The Wisdom of China)--> A great man is he who has not lost the heart of a child.<!-- (The Importance Of Living)-->

„Of the first importance are the people, next comes the good of land and grains, and of the least importance is the ruler.“

—  Mencius
7B:14. Variant translation: The people are the most important ... and the ruler is the least important.

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„If the king loves music, there is little wrong in the land.“

—  Mencius
Discourses, as quoted in "I Want to Know!" by Ivan Gogol Esipoff, The Etude, Vol. LXIII, No. 9 (September 1945), p. 496

„He who exerts his mind to the utmost knows his nature.“

—  Mencius
7A:1, as translated by Wing-tsit Chan in A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy (1963), p. 62

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