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José Ortega Y Gasset

Geburtstag: 9. Mai 1883
Todesdatum: 18. Oktober 1955
Andere Namen: Y Gasset José Ortega

José Ortega y Gasset war ein spanischer Philosoph, Soziologe und Essayist.

Werk

Der Aufstand der Massen
José Ortega Y Gasset

„Amerika hat noch nicht gelitten. Man täuscht sich, wenn man ihm die hohe Fähigkeit des Herrschens zubilligen möchte.“

—  José Ortega Y Gasset, buch Der Aufstand der Massen

Der Aufstand der Massen, S. 103 books.google https://books.google.de/books?id=6poH1lyK8voC&q=gelitten
Der Aufstand der Massen

„jetzt ist es der Mensch, der scheitert, weil er mit dem Fortschritt seiner eigenen Zivilisation nicht Schritt halten kann.“

—  José Ortega Y Gasset, buch Der Aufstand der Massen

Der Aufstand der Massen, S. 66 books.google https://books.google.de/books?id=6poH1lyK8voC&q=schritt
Der Aufstand der Massen

„Wenn die Masse selbstständig handelt, tut sie es nur auf eine Art: sie lyncht.“

—  José Ortega Y Gasset, buch Der Aufstand der Massen

Der Aufstand der Massen, S. 86 books.google https://books.google.de/books?id=6poH1lyK8voC&q=lyncht.
Der Aufstand der Massen

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„The city is not built, as is the cottage or the domus, to shelter from the weather and to propagate the species — these are personal, family concerns — but in order to discuss public affairs.“

—  José Ortega Y Gasset, buch Der Aufstand der Massen

Quelle: The Revolt of the Masses (1929), Chapter XIV: Who Rules The World?
Kontext: Greeks and Latins appear in history lodged, like bees in their hives, within cities, poleis. … The polis is not primarily a collection of habitable dwellings, but a meeting-place for citizens, a space set apart for public functions. The city is not built, as is the cottage or the domus, to shelter from the weather and to propagate the species — these are personal, family concerns — but in order to discuss public affairs. … The man of the fields is still a sort of vegetable. His existence, all that he feels, thinks, wishes for, preserves the listless drowsiness in which the plant lives. The great civilisations of Asia and Africa were, from this point of view, huge anthropomorphic vegetations. …Socrates, the great townsman, quintessence of the spirit of the polis, can say: "I have nothing to do with the trees of the field, I have to do only with the man of the city." What has ever been known of this by the Hindu, the Persian, the Chinese, or the Egyptian?

„Nationalism is always an effort in a direction opposite to that of the principle which creates nations. The former is exclusive in tendency, the latter inclusive.“

—  José Ortega Y Gasset, buch Der Aufstand der Massen

Quelle: The Revolt of the Masses (1929), Chapter XIV: Who Rules The World?
Kontext: Nationalism is always an effort in a direction opposite to that of the principle which creates nations. The former is exclusive in tendency, the latter inclusive. In periods of consolidation, nationalism has a positive value, and is a lofty standard. But in Europe everything is more than consolidated, and nationalism is nothing but a mania, a pretext to escape from the necessity of inventing something new, some great enterprise.

„Contrary to what is usually thought, it is the man of excellence, and not the common man who lives in essential servitude. Life has no savour for him unless he makes it consist in service to something transcendental.“

—  José Ortega Y Gasset, buch Der Aufstand der Massen

Chap. VII: Noble Life And Common Life, Or Effort And Inertia
The Revolt of the Masses (1929)
Kontext: The mass-man would never have accepted authority external to himself had not his surroundings violently forced him to do so. As to-day, his surroundings do not so force him, the everlasting mass-man, true to his character, ceases to appeal to other authority and feels himself lord of his own existence. On the contrary the select man, the excellent man is urged, by interior necessity, to appeal from himself to some standard beyond himself, superior to himself, whose service he freely accepts.… Contrary to what is usually thought, it is the man of excellence, and not the common man who lives in essential servitude. Life has no savour for him unless he makes it consist in service to something transcendental. Hence he does not look upon the necessity of serving as an oppression. When, by chance, such necessity is lacking, he grows restless and invents some new standard, more difficult, more exigent, with which to coerce himself. This is life lived as a discipline — the noble life.

„Why should he listen if he has within him all that is necessary? There is no reason now for listening, but rather for judging, pronouncing, deciding.“

—  José Ortega Y Gasset, buch Der Aufstand der Massen

Chap. VIII: The Masses Intervene In Everything, And Why Their Intervention Is Solely By Violence
The Revolt of the Masses (1929)
Kontext: It is not a question of the mass-man being a fool. On the contrary, to-day he is more clever, has more capacity of understanding than his fellow of any previous period. But that capacity is of no use to him; in reality, the vague feeling that he possesses it seems only to shut him up more within himself and keep him from using it. Once for all, he accepts the stock of commonplaces, prejudices, fag-ends of ideas or simply empty words which chance has piled up within his mind, and with a boldness only explicable by his ingenuousness, is prepared to impose them everywhere.… Why should he listen if he has within him all that is necessary? There is no reason now for listening, but rather for judging, pronouncing, deciding. There is no question concerning public life, in which he does not intervene, blind and deaf as he is, imposing his "opinions."

„We cannot put off living until we are ready.“

—  José Ortega Y Gasset

Mission of the University https://archive.org/details/missionofuniver000orte [ Misión de la Universidad http://www.esi2.us.es/~fabio/mision.pdf
Kontext: Life cannot wait until the sciences may have explained the universe scientifically. We cannot put off living until we are ready. The most salient characteristic of life is its coerciveness: it is always urgent, "here and now" without any possible postponement. Life is fired at us point-blank. And culture, which is but its interpretation, cannot wait any more than can life itself.

„The characteristic of the hour is that the commonplace mind, knowing itself to be commonplace, has the assurance to proclaim the rights of the commonplace and to impose them wherever it will.“

—  José Ortega Y Gasset, buch Der Aufstand der Massen

Chap.I: The Coming Of The Masses
The Revolt of the Masses (1929)
Kontext: The characteristic of the hour is that the commonplace mind, knowing itself to be commonplace, has the assurance to proclaim the rights of the commonplace and to impose them wherever it will. As they say in the United States: "to be different is to be indecent." The mass crushes beneath it everything that is different, everything that is excellent, individual, qualified and select. Anybody who is not like everybody, who does not think like everybody, runs the risk of being eliminated. And it is clear, of course, that this "everybody" is not "everybody." "Everybody" was normally the complex unity of the mass and the divergent, specialised minorities. Nowadays, "everybody" is the mass alone.

„I am free by compulsion, whether I wish to be or not.“

—  José Ortega Y Gasset

“Man has no nature”
History as a System (1962)
Kontext: Be it well understood, I am free by compulsion, whether I wish to be or not. Freedom is not an activity pursued by an entity that, apart from and previous to such pursuit, is already possessed of a fixed being. To be free means to be lacking in constitutive identity, not to have subscribed to a determined being, to be able to be other than what one was, to be unable to install oneself once and for all in any given being. The only attribute of the fixed, stable being in the free being is this constitutive instability.

„These traits together make up the well-known psychology of the spoilt child.“

—  José Ortega Y Gasset, buch Der Aufstand der Massen

Chap. VI: The Dissection Of The Mass-Man Begins
The Revolt of the Masses (1929)
Kontext: Even to-day, in spite of some signs which are making a tiny breach in that sturdy faith, even to-day, there are few men who doubt that motorcars will in five years' time be more comfortable and cheaper than to-day. They believe in this as they believe that the sun will rise in the morning. The metaphor is an exact one. For, in fact, the common man, finding himself in a world so excellent, technically and socially, believes that it has been produced by nature, and never thinks of the personal efforts of highly-endowed individuals which the creation of this new world presupposed. Still less will he admit the notion that all these facilities still require the support of certain difficult human virtues, the least failure of which would cause the rapid disappearance of the whole magnificent edifice.… These traits together make up the well-known psychology of the spoilt child.

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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