Zitate von John Rawls

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John Rawls

Geburtstag: 21. Februar 1921
Todesdatum: 24. November 2002

John Rawls war ein US-amerikanischer Philosoph, der als Professor an der Harvard University lehrte. Sein Hauptwerk A Theory of Justice gilt als eines der einflussreichsten Werke der politischen Philosophie des 20. Jahrhunderts.



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Zitate John Rawls

„The natural distribution is neither just nor unjust; nor is it unjust that persons are born into society at some particular position. These are simply natural facts. What is just and unjust is the way that institutions deal with these facts.“

—  John Rawls, buch A Theory of Justice

Quelle: A Theory of Justice (1971; 1975; 1999), Chapter II, Section 14, pg. 87-88
Kontext: Occasionally this reflection is offered as an excuse for ignoring injustice, as if the refusal to acquiesce in injustice is on a par with being unable to accept death. The natural distribution is neither just nor unjust; nor is it unjust that persons are born into society at some particular position. These are simply natural facts. What is just and unjust is the way that institutions deal with these facts.
Kontext: We may reject the contention that the ordering of institutions is always defective because the distribution of natural talents and the contingencies of social circumstance are unjust, and this injustice must inevitably carry over to human arrangements. Occasionally this reflection is offered as an excuse for ignoring injustice, as if the refusal to acquiesce in injustice is on a par with being unable to accept death. The natural distribution is neither just nor unjust; nor is it unjust that persons are born into society at some particular position. These are simply natural facts. What is just and unjust is the way that institutions deal with these facts. Aristocratic and caste societies are unjust because they make these contingencies the ascriptive basis for belonging to more or less enclosed and privileged social classes. The basic structure of these societies incorporates the arbitrariness found in nature. But there is no necessity for men to resign themselves to these contingencies. The social system is not an unchangeable order beyond human control but a pattern of human action. In justice as fairness men agree to avail themselves of the accidents of nature and social circumstance only when doing so is for the common benefit. The two principles are a fair way of meeting the arbitrariness of fortune; and while no doubt imperfect in other ways, the institutions which satisfy these principles are just.

„Each person possesses an inviolability founded on justice that even the welfare of society as a whole cannot override.“

—  John Rawls, buch A Theory of Justice

Quelle: A Theory of Justice (1971; 1975; 1999), Chapter I, Section 1, pg. 3-4
Kontext: Justice is the first virtue of social institutions, as truth is of systems of thought. A theory however elegant and economical must be rejected or revised if it is untrue; likewise laws and institutions no matter how efficient and well-arranged must be reformed or abolished if they are unjust. Each person possesses an inviolability founded on justice that even the welfare of society as a whole cannot override. For this reason justice denies that the loss of freedom for some is made right by a greater good shared by others. It does not allow that the sacrifices imposed on a few are outweighed by the larger sum of advantages enjoyed by many. Therefore in a just society the liberties of equal citizenship are taken as settled; the rights secured by justice are not subject to political bargaining or to the calculus of social interests.

„The concept of justice I take to be defined, then, by the role of its principles in assigning rights and duties and in defining the appropriate division of social advantages.“

—  John Rawls, buch A Theory of Justice

Quelle: A Theory of Justice (1971; 1975; 1999), Chapter I, Section 2, pg. 10
Kontext: The concept of justice I take to be defined, then, by the role of its principles in assigning rights and duties and in defining the appropriate division of social advantages. A conception of justice is an interpretation of this role.

„The intolerant can be viewed as free-riders, as persons who seek the advantages of just institutions while not doing their share to uphold them.“

—  John Rawls, buch A Theory of Justice

Quelle: A Theory of Justice (1971; 1975; 1999), Chapter VI, Section 59, pg. 388

„I have tried to set forth a theory that enables us to understand and to assess these feelings about the primacy of justice.“

—  John Rawls, buch A Theory of Justice

Quelle: A Theory of Justice (1971; 1975; 1999), Chapter IX, Section 87, p. 586
Kontext: I have tried to set forth a theory that enables us to understand and to assess these feelings about the primacy of justice. Justice as fairness is the outcome: it articulates these opinions and supports their general tendency.

„Justice is the first virtue of social institutions, as truth is of systems of thought.“

—  John Rawls, buch A Theory of Justice

Quelle: A Theory of Justice (1971; 1975; 1999), Chapter I, Section 1, pg. 3-4
Kontext: Justice is the first virtue of social institutions, as truth is of systems of thought. A theory however elegant and economical must be rejected or revised if it is untrue; likewise laws and institutions no matter how efficient and well-arranged must be reformed or abolished if they are unjust. Each person possesses an inviolability founded on justice that even the welfare of society as a whole cannot override. For this reason justice denies that the loss of freedom for some is made right by a greater good shared by others. It does not allow that the sacrifices imposed on a few are outweighed by the larger sum of advantages enjoyed by many. Therefore in a just society the liberties of equal citizenship are taken as settled; the rights secured by justice are not subject to political bargaining or to the calculus of social interests.

„We cannot at the end count them a second time because we do not like the result.“

—  John Rawls, buch A Theory of Justice

Quelle: A Theory of Justice (1971; 1975; 1999), Chapter III, Section 23, pg. 135
Kontext: The claims of existing social arrangements and of self interest have been duly allowed for. We cannot at the end count them a second time because we do not like the result.

„The principles of justice are chosen behind a veil of ignorance.“

—  John Rawls, buch A Theory of Justice

Quelle: A Theory of Justice (1971; 1975; 1999), Chapter I, Section 3, pg. 12

„There are infinitely many variations of the initial situation and therefore no doubt indefinitely many theorems of moral geometry.“

—  John Rawls, buch A Theory of Justice

Quelle: A Theory of Justice (1971; 1975; 1999), Chapter III, Section 21, pg. 126

„I have assumed throughout that the persons in the original position are rational.“

—  John Rawls, buch A Theory of Justice

Quelle: A Theory of Justice (1971; 1975; 1999), Chapter III, Section 25, pg. 142

„A just system must generate its own support.“

—  John Rawls, buch A Theory of Justice

Quelle: A Theory of Justice (1971; 1975; 1999), Chapter V, Section 41, p. 261

„At best the principles that economists have supposed the choices of rational individuals to satisfy can be presented as guidelines for us to consider when we make our decisions.“

—  John Rawls, buch A Theory of Justice

Quelle: A Theory of Justice (1971; 1975; 1999), Chapter IX, Section 84, p. 558

„An individual who finds that he enjoys seeing others in positions of lesser liberty understands that he has no claim whatever to this enjoyment.“

—  John Rawls, buch A Theory of Justice

Quelle: A Theory of Justice (1971; 1975; 1999), Chapter I, Section 6, pg. 31

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