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Eric Kandel

Geburtstag: 7. November 1929

Eric Richard Kandel ist ein US-amerikanischer Psychiater, Physiologe, Neurowissenschaftler, Verhaltensbiologe und Biochemiker österreichischer Herkunft. Er wurde im Jahr 2000 mit dem Nobelpreis für Physiologie oder Medizin ausgezeichnet. Wikipedia

Zitate Eric Kandel

„Die vielleicht letzte wissenschaftliche Grenze — die ultimative Herausforderung — besteht darin, die biologische Basis des Bewußtseins und der geistigen Vorgänge, durch die wir wahrnehmen, handeln, lernen und uns erinnern, zu verstehen.“

—  Eric Kandel

Eric R. Kandel, James H. Schwartz, Thomas M. Jessell: Neurowissenschaften. Eine Einführung. Aus dem Englischen übersetzt von Susanne Benner, Andrea Bibbig, Peter Germroth, Stefan Hartung, Ingrid Horn, Monika Niehaus-Osterloh, Markus Numberger, Marcus Plach und Olaf Witte. Spektrum 1995, S. 6
"Perhaps the last frontier of science — its ultimate challenge — is to understand the biological basis of consciousness and the mental processes by which we perceive, act, learn, and remember." - Eric R. Kandel, James H. Schwartz, Thomas M. Jessell: Essentials of Neural Science and Behavior. Appleton & Lange, 1991, p.3
Zitate

„What strategy does the brain use to read itself out?“

—  Eric R. Kandel

In Search of Memory (2006)
Kontext: What strategy does the brain use to read itself out? That question, which is central to the unitary nature of conscious experience, remains one of the many unresolved mysteries of the new science of mind.

„Every time I embarked on a new course, there were well-meaning people… who advised against it.“

—  Eric R. Kandel

In Search of Memory (2006)
Kontext: I have at times felt alone, uncertain, without a well-trodden path to follow. Every time I embarked on a new course, there were well-meaning people... who advised against it. I had to learn early on to be comfortable with insecurity and to trust my own judgement on key issues.

„Transferring the receptor from a social worm to a solitary worm makes the solitary worm social.“

—  Eric R. Kandel

In Search of Memory (2006)
Kontext: Cori Bargmann... has studied two variants of C. elegans... The only difference between the two is one amino acid in an otherwise shared receptor protein. Transferring the receptor from a social worm to a solitary worm makes the solitary worm social.

„The third great revolution, the Freudian revolution of Vienna 1900, revealed that we do not consciously control our own actions but are instead driven by unconscious motives. This… later led to the idea that human creativity… stems from conscious access to underlying, unconscious forces.“

—  Eric R. Kandel

The Age of Insight (2012)
Kontext: The Copernican revolution... revealed that the earth is not the center of the universe... The second, the Darwinian revolution... revealed that we are not created divinely or uniquely but instead evolved from simpler animals by a process of natural selection. The third great revolution, the Freudian revolution of Vienna 1900, revealed that we do not consciously control our own actions but are instead driven by unconscious motives. This... later led to the idea that human creativity... stems from conscious access to underlying, unconscious forces.

„It spawned an ongoing pursuit to link these disciplines.“

—  Eric R. Kandel

The Age of Insight (2012)
Kontext: The remarkable insight that characterized Klimt's later work was contemporaneous with Freud's psychological studies and presaged the inward turn that would pervade all fields of inquiry in Vienna in 1900. This period... was characterized by the attempt to make a sharp break with the past and to explore new forms of expression in art, architecture, psychology, literature, and music. It spawned an ongoing pursuit to link these disciplines.

„The realization that our mental functioning is largely irrational was arrived at by several thinkers at the same time“

—  Eric R. Kandel

The Age of Insight (2012)
Kontext: The realization that our mental functioning is largely irrational was arrived at by several thinkers at the same time, including Friedrich Nietzsche... Freud, who was much influenced by both Darwin and Nietzsche... was its most profound and articulate exponent.... Schnitzler, Klimt, Kokoschka, and Schiele also discovered and explored new aspects of our unconscious mental life. They understood women better than Freud... and they saw more clearly than Freud the importance of an infant's bonding to its mother. They even realized the significance of the aggressive instinct earlier than Freud did.... Plato discussed unconscious knowledge... pointing out that much of our knowledge is inherent in the psyche in latent form.... Hermann von Helmholtz... advanced the idea that the unconscious plays a critical role in human visual perception.

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„The remarkable insight that characterized Klimt's later work was contemporaneous with Freud's psychological studies and presaged the inward turn that would pervade all fields of inquiry“

—  Eric R. Kandel

The Age of Insight (2012)
Kontext: The remarkable insight that characterized Klimt's later work was contemporaneous with Freud's psychological studies and presaged the inward turn that would pervade all fields of inquiry in Vienna in 1900. This period... was characterized by the attempt to make a sharp break with the past and to explore new forms of expression in art, architecture, psychology, literature, and music. It spawned an ongoing pursuit to link these disciplines.

„Unlike vision, touch, or smell, which are prewired and based on Kantian a priori knowledge, the spatial map presents us with a new type of representation, one based on a combination of a priori knowledge and learning.“

—  Eric R. Kandel

In Search of Memory (2006)
Kontext: Unlike vision, touch, or smell, which are prewired and based on Kantian a priori knowledge, the spatial map presents us with a new type of representation, one based on a combination of a priori knowledge and learning. The general capability for forming spatial maps is built into the mind, but the particular map is not. Unlike neurons in a sensory system, place cells are not switched on by sensory stimulation. Their collective activity represents the location where the animal thinks it is.

„I outline in simple terms… our current understanding of the cognitive psychological and neurobiological basis of perception, memory, emotion, empathy, and creativity. …the principles of the viewer's response to art are applicable to all periods of painting.“

—  Eric R. Kandel

The Age of Insight (2012)
Kontext: I outline in simple terms... our current understanding of the cognitive psychological and neurobiological basis of perception, memory, emotion, empathy, and creativity.... the principles of the viewer's response to art are applicable to all periods of painting.

„Klimt sought newer truths that could not be captured by the camera. He… turned the artists view inward“

—  Eric R. Kandel

The Age of Insight (2012)
Kontext: Like other modern artists faced with the advent of the photography, Klimt sought newer truths that could not be captured by the camera. He... turned the artists view inward—away from the three-dimensional outside world and toward the multidimensional inner self and the unconscious mind.

„London taxi drivers have a larger hippocampus“

—  Eric R. Kandel

In Search of Memory (2006)
Kontext: Birds in which spatial memory is particularly important—those that store food at a large number of sites, for example—have larger hippocampuses than other birds.... London taxi drivers have a larger hippocampus than others the same age.... the size of their hippocampus continues to increase with time on the job.

„CREB's opposing regulatory actions provide a threshold for memory storage, presumably to ensure that only important, life-serving experiences are learned. Repeated shocks to the tail are a significant learning experience for an Aplysia, just as, say, practicing the piano or conjugating French verbs are to us: practice makes perfect, repetition is necessary for long-term memory. In principle, however, a highly emotional state… could bypass the normal restraints on long-term memory.“

—  Eric R. Kandel

In Search of Memory (2006)
Kontext: CREB's opposing regulatory actions provide a threshold for memory storage, presumably to ensure that only important, life-serving experiences are learned. Repeated shocks to the tail are a significant learning experience for an Aplysia, just as, say, practicing the piano or conjugating French verbs are to us: practice makes perfect, repetition is necessary for long-term memory. In principle, however, a highly emotional state... could bypass the normal restraints on long-term memory. In such a situation, enough MAP kinase molecules would be sent into the nucleus rapidly enough to inactivate all of the CREB-2 molecules, thereby making it easy for protein kinase A to activate CREB-1 and put the experience directly into long-term memory.

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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