„Ich habe mir viel Mühe um die Erklärung dieses Versuchs gegeben und habe schließlich nur einen Ausweg gefunden. Derselbe besteht in der Hypothese, daß die Verbindungslinie zweier Punkte eines festen Körpers nicht die gleiche Länge behält, wenn sie einmal der Bewegungsrichtung der Erde parallel läuft, und dann senkrecht darauf gestellt wird. - Die relative Bewegung der Erde und des Äthers, in: Abhandlungen über theoretische Physik, B. G. Teubner Leipzig 1907“
Zitate von Hendrik Antoon Lorentz
Hendrik Antoon Lorentz
Geburtstag: 18. Juli 1853
Todesdatum: 4. Februar 1928
Hendrik Antoon Lorentz war ein niederländischer theoretischer Physiker. Lorentz legte mit seinen Untersuchungen zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper die Grundlagen und Vorläufertheorien, auf denen die spezielle Relativitätstheorie Albert Einsteins aufgebaut wurde. Begriffe wie Lorentz-Kraft und Lorentz-Transformation wurden nach ihm benannt.
Aufgrund der Ähnlichkeit des Namens wird er in Fragen der Benennung häufig mit dem dänischen Physiker Ludvig Lorenz verwechselt, nach dem beispielsweise die Lorenz-Eichung und die Lorenz-Mie-Theorie benannt wurden. Der Lorenz-Attraktor ist nach dem amerikanischen Meteorologen Edward N. Lorenz benannt. Wikipedia
Zitate Hendrik Antoon Lorentz
„„Es sei hier noch die Bemerkung vorausgeschickt, dass die Variable als Zeit betrachtet werden kann, gerechnet von einem von der Lage des betreffenden Punktes abhängigen Augenblick an. Man kann daher diese Variable die "Ortszeit" dieses Punktes, im Gegensatz zu der "allgemeinen Zeit", nennen“. - Versuch einer Theorie der electrischen und optischen Erscheinungen in bewegten Körpern, E. J. Brill, Leiden, S. 50, 1895“
"Nobelrede", Stockholm, 11. Dezember 1902, (Freie Übersetzung aus dem Englischen. In der Rede http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1902/lorentz-lecture.html wird das Wort Äther insgesamt 44 Mal gebraucht.)
Original engl.: "I shall have very little to say about ponderable matter, but so much the more about ether and electrons." - Nobel Lecture, December 11, 1902 http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1902/lorentz-lecture.html
„Ich habe mir viel Mühe um die Erklärung dieses Versuchs gegeben und habe schließlich nur einen Ausweg gefunden. Derselbe besteht in der Hypothese, daß die Verbindungslinie zweier Punkte eines festen Körpers nicht die gleiche Länge behält, wenn sie einmal der Bewegungsrichtung der Erde parallel läuft, und dann senkrecht darauf gestellt wird.“
Die relative Bewegung der Erde und des Äthers, in: Abhandlungen über theoretische Physik, B.G. Teubner Leipzig 1907
(Original ndl.: "Ik heb lang vruchteloos over deze proef nagedacht en heb ten slotte slechts één middel kunnen bedenken om de uitkomst ervan met de theorie van Fresnel te verzoenen. Het bestaat in de onderstelling dat de verbindingslijn van twee punten van een vast lichaam niet even lang blijft indien zij eerst evenwijdig aan de bewegingsrichting der aarde loopt en vervolgens loodrecht daarop wordt geplaatst." - De relatieve beweging van de aarde en den aether, Zittingsverslag Akad. v. Wet., Amsterdam, 1892, nl.wikisource http://nl.wikisource.org/wiki/De_relatieve_beweging_van_de_aarde_en_den_aether
„Es sei hier noch die Bemerkung vorausgeschickt, dass die Variable t' als Zeit betrachtet werden kann, gerechnet von einem von der Lage des betreffenden Punktes abhängigen Augenblick an. Man kann daher diese Variable die "Ortszeit" dieses Punktes, im Gegensatz zu der "allgemeinen Zeit" t, nennen.“
Versuch einer Theorie der electrischen und optischen Erscheinungen in bewegten Körpern, E. J. Brill, Leiden, S. 50, 1895
As quoted by Walter Kaufmann, "The Development of the Electron Idea" (Nov. 8, 1901) The Electrician Vol. 48 https://books.google.com/books?id=owxRAAAAYAAJ pp. 95-97. Lecture delivered before the 73rd Naturforscher Versammlung at Hamburg. From the Physikalische Zeitshrift, of October 1, 1901.
„I cannot refrain… from expressing my surprise that, according to the report in The Times there should be so much complaint about the difficulty of understanding the new theory. It is evident that Einstein's little book "About the Special and the General Theory of Relativity in Plain Terms," did not find its way into England during wartime. Any one reading it will, in my opinion, come to the conclusion that the basic ideas of the theory are really clear and simple; it is only to be regretted that it was impossible to avoid clothing them in pretty involved mathematical terms, but we must not worry about that. …
The Newtonian theory remains in its full value as the first great step, without which one cannot imagine the development of astronomy and without which the second step, that has now been made, would hardly have been possible. It remains, moreover, as the first, and in most cases, sufficient, approximation. It is true that, according to Einstein's theory, because it leaves us entirely free as to the way in which we wish to represent the phenomena, we can imagine an idea of the solar system in which the planets follow paths of peculiar form and the rays of light shine along sharply bent lines—think of a twisted and distorted planetarium—but in every case where we apply it to concrete questions we shall so arrange it that the planets describe almost exact ellipses and the rays of light almost straight lines.
It is not necessary to give up entirely even the ether. …according to the Einstein theory, gravitation itself does not spread instantaneously, but with a velocity that at the first estimate may be compared with that of light. …In my opinion it is not impossible that in the future this road, indeed abandoned at present, will once more be followed with good results, if only because it can lead to the thinking out of new experimental tests. Einstein's theory need not keep us from so doing; only the ideas about the ether must accord with it.“
Theory of Relativity: A Concise Statement (1920)
„Einstein's theory has the very highest degree of æsthetic merit: every lover of the beautiful must wish it to be true. It gives a vast unified survey of the operations of nature, with a technical simplicity in the critical assumptions which makes the wealth of deductions astonishing. It is a case of an advance arrived at by pure theory: the whole effect of Einstein's work is to make physics more philosophical (in a good sense), and to restore some of that intellectual unity which belonged to the great scientific systems of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, but which was lost through increasing specialization and the overwhelming mass of detailed knowledge. In some ways our age is not a good one to live in, but for those who are interested in physics there are great compensations.“
Theory of Relativity: A Concise Statement (1920)
„The impressions received by the two observers A0 and A would be alike in all respects. It would be impossible to decide which of them moves or stands still with respect to the ether, and there would be no reason for preferring the times and lengths measured by the one to those determined by the other, nor for saying that either of them is in possession of the "true" times or the "true" lengths. This is a point which Einstein has laid particular stress on, in a theory in which he starts from what he calls the principle of relativity, i. e., the principle that the equations by means of which physical phenomena may be described are not altered in form when we change the axes of coordinates for others having a uniform motion of translation relatively to the original system.
I cannot speak here of the many highly interesting applications which Einstein has made of this principle. His results concerning electromagnetic and optical phenomena …agree in the main with those which we have obtained… the chief difference being that Einstein simply postulates what we have deduced, with some difficulty and not altogether satisfactorily, from the fundamental equations of the electromagnetic field. By doing so, he may certainly take credit for making us see in the negative result of experiments like those of Michelson, Rayleigh and Brace, not a fortuitous compensation of opposing effects, but the manifestation of a general and fundamental principle.
Yet, I think, something may also be claimed in favour of the form in which I have presented the theory. I cannot but regard the ether, which can be the seat of an electromagnetic field with its energy and vibrations, as endowed with a certain degree of substantiality, however different it may be from all ordinary matter. …it seems natural not to assume at starting that it can never make any difference whether a body moves through the ether or not, and to measure distances and lengths of time by means of rods and clocks having a fixed position relatively to the ether.
It would be unjust not to add that, besides the fascinating boldness of its starting point, Einstein's theory has another marked advantage over mine. Whereas I have not been able to obtain for the equations referred to moving axes exactly the same form as for those which apply to a stationary system, Einstein has accomplished this by means of a system of new variables slightly different from those which I have introduced.“
Quelle: The Theory of Electrons and Its Applications to the Phenomena of Light and Radiant Heat (1916), Ch. V Optical Phenomena in Moving Bodies.
„One has been led to the conception of electrons, i. e. of extremely small particles, charged with electricity, which are present in immense numbers in all ponderable bodies, and by whose distribution and motions we endeavor to explain all electric and optical phenomena that are not confined to the free ether…. according to our modern views, the electrons in a conducting body, or at least a certain part of them, are supposed to be in a free state, so that they can obey an electric force by which the positive particles are driven in one, and the negative electrons in the opposite direction. In the case of a non-conducting substance, on the contrary, we shall assume that the electrons are bound to certain positions of equilibrium. If, in a metallic wire, the electrons of one kind, say the negative ones, are travelling in one direction, and perhaps those of the opposite kind in the opposite direction, we have to do with a current of conduction, such as may lead to a state in which a body connected to one end of the wire has an excess of either positive or negative electrons. This excess, the charge of the body as a whole, will, in the state of equilibrium and if the body consists of a conducting substance, be found in a very thin layer at its surface.
In a ponderable dielectric there can likewise be a motion of the electrons. Indeed, though we shall think of each of them as haying a definite position of equilibrium, we shall not suppose them to be wholly immovable. They can be displaced by an electric force exerted by the ether, which we conceive to penetrate all ponderable matter… the displacement will immediately give rise to a new force by which the particle is pulled back towards its original position, and which we may therefore appropriately distinguish by the name of elastic force. The motion of the electrons in non-conducting bodies, such as glass and sulphur, kept by the elastic force within certain bounds, together with the change of the dielectric displacement in the ether itself, now constitutes what Maxwell called the displacement current. A substance in which the electrons are shifted to new positions is said to be electrically polarized.
Again, under the influence of the elastic forces, the electrons can vibrate about their positions of equilibrium. In doing so, and perhaps also on account of other more irregular motions, they become the centres of waves that travel outwards in the surrounding ether and can be observed as light if the frequency is high enough. In this manner we can account for the emission of light and heat. As to the opposite phenomenon, that of absorption, this is explained by considering the vibrations that are communicated to the electrons by the periodic forces existing in an incident beam of light. If the motion of the electrons thus set vibrating does not go on undisturbed, but is converted in one way or another into the irregular agitation which we call heat, it is clear that part of the incident energy will be stored up in the body, in other terms [words] that there is a certain absorption. Nor is it the absorption alone that can be accounted for by a communication of motion to the electrons. This optical resonance, as it may in many cases be termed, can likewise make itself felt even if there is no resistance at all, so that the body is perfectly transparent. In this case also, the electrons contained within the molecules will be set in motion, and though no vibratory energy is lost, the oscillating particles will exert an influence on the velocity with which the vibrations are propagated through the body. By taking account of this reaction of the electrons we are enabled to establish an electromagnetic theory of the refrangibility of light, in its relation to the wave-length and the state of the matter, and to form a mental picture of the beautiful and varied phenomena of double refraction and circular polarization.
On the other hand, the theory of the motion of electrons in metallic bodies has been developed to a considerable extent…. important results that have been reached by Riecke, Drude and J. J. Thomson… the free electrons in these bodies partake of the heat-motion of the molecules of ordinary matter, travelling in all directions with such velocities that the mean kinetic energy of each of them is equal to that of a gaseous molecule at the same temperature. If we further suppose the electrons to strike over and over again against metallic atoms, so that they describe irregular zigzag-lines, we can make clear to ourselves the reason that metals are at the same time good conductors of heat and of electricity, and that, as a general rule, in the series of the metals, the two conductivities change in nearly the same ratio. The larger the number of free electrons, and the longer the time that elapses between two successive encounters, the greater will be the conductivity for heat as well as that for electricity.“
Quelle: The Theory of Electrons and Its Applications to the Phenomena of Light and Radiant Heat (1916), Ch. I General principles. Theory of free electrons, pp. 8-10