„Economics is a science which studies human behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses.“

An Essay on the nature and significance of Economic Science (1932), Chapter I: The Subject Matter of Economics
Kontext: The economist studies the disposal of scarce means. He is interested in the way different degrees of scarcity of different goods give rise to different ratios of valuation between them, and he is interested in the way in which changes in conditions of scarcity, whether coming from changes in ends or changes in means—from the demand side or the supply side—affect these ratios. Economics is a science which studies human behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses.

Übernommen aus Wikiquote. Letzte Aktualisierung 3. Juni 2021. Geschichte
Lionel Robbins Foto
Lionel Robbins
britischer Ökonom 1898 - 1984

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Aldous Huxley Foto

„Unless we choose to decentralize and to use applied science, not as the end to which human beings are to be made the means, but as the means to producing a race of free individuals, we have only two alternatives to choose from“

—  Aldous Huxley, buch Schöne neue Welt

Foreword to the 1946 edition
Brave New World (1932)
Kontext: Unless we choose to decentralize and to use applied science, not as the end to which human beings are to be made the means, but as the means to producing a race of free individuals, we have only two alternatives to choose from: either a number of national, militarized totalitarianisms, having as their root the terror of the atomic bomb and as their consequence the destruction of civilization (or, if the warfare is limited, the perpetuation of militarism); or else one supra-national totalitarianism, called into existence by the social chaos resulting from rapid technological progress in general and the atomic revolution in particular, and developing, under the need for efficiency and stability, into the welfare-tyranny of Utopia. You pays your money and you takes your choice.

Witold Doroszewski Foto

„[There will be movement toward] behavioral economics… [which] involves study of those aspects of men’s images, or cognitive and affective structures that are more relevant to economic decisions.“

—  Kenneth E. Boulding British-American economist 1910 - 1993

Kenneth Boulding (1958) "Contemporary Economic Research".  In Donald P. Ray (ed.). Trends in Social Science, pp. 9-26. as cited in: James Alm (2011) Testing Behavioral Public Economics Theories in the Laboratory http://econ.tulane.edu/RePEc/pdf/tul1102.pdf. Working paper.
Alm proceeds by stating: "Given the essential role of psychological insights in the field, together with the obvious truism that all economics concerns “behavior” in one form or another, a more descriptive name for the field is perhaps “cognitive economics”, as recognized early on by Boulding (1958)."
1950s

Robert Costanza Foto
James M. Buchanan Foto
Tjalling Koopmans Foto
Alfred de Zayas Foto

„Democracy is not the end product, but the means to the end, which is the enjoyment of human rights by all.“

—  Alfred de Zayas American United Nations official 1947

Alfred-Maurice de Zayas 2013 Report of the Independent Expert on the promotion of a democratic and equitable international order
2013
Variante: Democracy is not an end in itself, but a means to achieve the sacred promises of human dignity, justice and peace

Évariste Galois Foto

„[This] science is the work of the human mind, which is destined rather to study than to know, to seek the truth rather than to find it.“

—  Évariste Galois French mathematician, founder of group theory 1811 - 1832

Of mathematics — as quoted in Mathematics: The Loss of Certainty (1980) by Morris Kline, p. 99.

William Osler Foto

„Faith is indeed one of the miracles of human nature which science is as ready to accept as it is to study its marvellous effects.“

—  William Osler Canadian pathologist, physician, educator, bibliophile, historian, author, cofounder of Johns Hopkins Hospital 1849 - 1919

The Faith that Heals (1910)
Kontext: Faith is indeed one of the miracles of human nature which science is as ready to accept as it is to study its marvellous effects. When we realise what a vast asset it has been in history, the part which it has played in the healing art seems insignificant, and yet there is no department of knowledge more favourable to an impartial study of its effects, and this brings me to my subject — the faith that heals.

„I see the tasks of social sciences to discover what kinds of order actually do exist in the whole range of the behavior of human beings; what kind of functional relationships between different parts of culture exist in space and over time, and what functionally more useful kinds of order can be created.“

—  Robert Staughton Lynd American sociologist 1892 - 1970

R.S. Lynd (1939) Knowledge of What? p. 125-6, cited in Karl William Kapp (1976), The nature and significance of institutional economics http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-6435.1976.tb01971.x/abstract. in: Kyklos, Vol 29/2, Jan 1976, p. 209

Mohammad Khatami Foto
John Kenneth Galbraith Foto
Gordon Brown Foto

„Our new economic approach is rooted in ideas which stress the importance of macro-economics, post neo-classical endogenous growth theory and the symbiotic relationships between growth and investment, and people and infrastructure.“

—  Gordon Brown British Labour Party politician 1951

Michael White, "The gift of tired tongues", The Guardian, 30 September 1994; Norman Macrae, "You've never had it so incoherent", Sunday Times, 2 October 1994.
Speech at an economic seminar, Tuesday 27 September 1994.
Member of Parliament

Tjalling Koopmans Foto

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