„It has been said: The whole is more than the sum of its parts. It is more correct to say that the whole is something else than the sum of its parts,“

Quelle: Principles of Gestalt Psychology, 1935, p. 176
Kontext: Even these humble objects reveal that our reality is not a mere collocation of elemental facts, but consists of units in which no part exists by itself, where each part points beyond itself and implies a larger whole. Facts and significance cease to be two concepts belonging to different realms, since a fact is always a fact in an intrinsically coherent whole. We could solve no problem of organization by solving it for each point separately, one after the other; the solution had to come for the whole. Thus we see how the problem of significance is closely bound up with the problem of the relation between the whole and its parts. It has been said: The whole is more than the sum of its parts. It is more correct to say that the whole is something else than the sum of its parts, because summing is a meaningless procedure, whereas the whole-part relationship is meaningful.

Kurt Koffka Foto
Kurt Koffka
deutscher Psychologe 1886 - 1941

Ähnliche Zitate

Russell L. Ackoff Foto

„A system is more than the sum of its parts; it is an indivisible whole.“

—  Russell L. Ackoff Scientist 1919 - 2009

It loses its essential properties when it is taken apart. The elements of a system may themselves be systems, and every system may be part of a larger system.
Ackoff (1973) "Science in the Systems Age: beyond IE, OR and MS." in: Operations Research Vol 21, pp. 664.

Aristotle Foto

„The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.“

—  Aristotle Classical Greek philosopher, student of Plato and founder of Western philosophy -384 - -321 v.Chr

„The characteristic of the organism is first that it is more than the sum of its parts and second that the single processes are ordered for the maintenance of the whole.“

—  Ludwig von Bertalanffy austrian biologist and philosopher 1901 - 1972

Quelle: 1920s, Kritische Theorie der Formbildung (1928, 1933), p. 305; as cited in: Cliff Hooker ed. (2011) Philosophy of Complex Systems. p. 189

„A system is more than the sum of its parts.“

—  Walter F. Buckley American sociologist 1922 - 2006

Quelle: Sociology and modern systems theory (1967), p. 42.

Russell L. Ackoff Foto
Frederick Buechner Foto
Shashi Tharoor Foto

„The only possible idea of India is that of a nation greater than the sum of its parts.“

—  Shashi Tharoor Indian politician, diplomat, author 1956

The Hindu, "Strengthening Indianness ", Sunday, Jan 19, 2003, Available Online http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/mag/2003/01/19/stories/2003011900240300.htm

Jan Smuts Foto
Christopher Langton Foto
Josiah Willard Gibbs Foto

„The whole is simpler than its parts.“

—  Josiah Willard Gibbs physicist 1839 - 1903

Quoted by Irving Fisher in "The Applications of Mathematics to the Social Sciences," Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society 36, 225-243 (1930). Full article http://projecteuclid.org/euclid.bams/1183493954

Marilyn Ferguson Foto
Jan Smuts Foto
Russell L. Ackoff Foto
Maynard James Keenan Foto
Euclid Foto

„And the whole [is] greater than the part.“

—  Euclid, buch Elements

Καὶ τὸ ὅλον τοῦ μέρους μεῖζον
Elements, Book I, Common Notion 8 (5 in certain editions)
Cf. Aristotle, Metaphysics, Book Η 1045a 8–10: "… the totality is not, as it were, a mere heap, but the whole is something besides the parts … [πάντων γὰρ ὅσα πλείω μέρη ἔχει καὶ μὴ ἔστιν οἷον σωρὸς τὸ πᾶν]"
Original: (el) Καὶ τὸ ὅλον τοῦ μέρους μεῖζον [ἐστιν].

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“