„Taking experimental results and observations for granted and putting the burden of proof on the theory means taking the observational ideology for granted without having ever examined it.“

— Paul Feyerabend, Context: Taking experimental results and observations for granted and putting the burden of proof on the theory means taking the observational ideology for granted without having ever examined it. Pg. 67.
Paul Feyerabend Foto
Paul Feyerabend4
österreichischer Philosoph und Wissenschaftstheoretiker 1924 - 1994
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Jane Jacobs Foto

„I have learned yet again (this has been going on all my life) what folly it is to take any thing for granted without examining it skeptically.“

— Jane Jacobs American–Canadian journalist, author on urbanism and activist (1916-2006) 1916 - 2006
Notes And Comments, p. 179

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Gene Kranz Foto

„Competent means we will never take anything for granted.“

— Gene Kranz NASA Flight Director and manager 1933
Context: Spaceflight will never tolerate carelessness, incapacity, and neglect. Somewhere, somehow, we screwed up. It could have been in design, build, or test. Whatever it was, we should have caught it. We were too gung ho about the schedule and we locked out all of the problems we saw each day in our work. Every element of the program was in trouble and so were we. The simulators were not working, Mission Control was behind in virtually every area, and the flight and test procedures changed daily. Nothing we did had any shelf life. Not one of us stood up and said, "Dammit, stop!" I don't know what Thompson's committee will find as the cause, but I know what I find. We are the cause! We were not ready! We did not do our job. We were rolling the dice, hoping that things would come together by launch day, when in our hearts we knew it would take a miracle. We were pushing the schedule and betting that the Cape would slip before we did. From this day forward, Flight Control will be known by two words: "Tough and Competent." Tough means we are forever accountable for what we do or what we fail to do. We will never again compromise our responsibilities. Every time we walk into Mission Control we will know what we stand for. Competent means we will never take anything for granted. We will never be found short in our knowledge and in our skills. Mission Control will be perfect. When you leave this meeting today you will go to your office and the first thing you will do there is to write "Tough and Competent" on your blackboards. It will never be erased. Each day when you enter the room these words will remind you of the price paid by Grissom, White, and Chaffee. These words are the price of admission to the ranks of Mission Control. Address to his branch and flight control team on the Monday morning following the Apollo 1 disaster (30 January 1967), known as "The Kranz Dictum"; as published in Failure Is Not An Option : Mission Control from Mercury to Apollo 13 and Beyond (2000) by Gene Kranz, p. 204. The phrase "tough and competent" was echoed by NASA Director Sean O'Keefe following the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, adding that "these words are the price of admission to the ranks of NASA, and we should adopt it that way."

Arthur Stanley Eddington Foto

„It is also a good rule not to put overmuch confidence in the observational results that are put forward until they are confirmed by theory.“

— Arthur Stanley Eddington British astrophysicist 1882 - 1944
As quoted in "Annals of Science II-DNA" by Horace Freeland Judson in The New Yorker (4 December 1978), p. 132

George E. P. Box Foto
Jiddu Krishnamurti Foto

„Observe, and in that observation there is neither the "observer" nor the "observed" — there is only observation taking place.“

— Jiddu Krishnamurti Indian spiritual philosopher 1895 - 1986
Context: Do you decide to observe? Or do you merely observe? Do you decide and say, "I am going to observe and learn"? For then there is the question: "Who is deciding?" Is it will that says, "I must"? And when it fails, it chastises itself further and says, "I must, must, must"; in that there is conflict; therefore the state of mind that has decided to observe is not observation at all. You are walking down the road, somebody passes you by, you observe and you may say to yourself, "How ugly he is; how he smells; I wish he would not do this or that". You are aware of your responses to that passer-by, you are aware that you are judging, condemning or justifying; you are observing. You do not say, "I must not judge, I must not justify". In being aware of your responses, there is no decision at all. You see somebody who insulted you yesterday. Immediately all your hackles are up, you become nervous or anxious, you begin to dislike; be aware of your dislike, be aware of all that, do not "decide" to be aware. Observe, and in that observation there is neither the "observer" nor the "observed" — there is only observation taking place. The "observer" exists only when you accumulate in the observation; when you say, "He is my friend because he has flattered me", or, "He is not my friend, because he has said something ugly about me, or something true which I do not like." That is accumulation through observation and that accumulation is the observer. When you observe without accumulation, then there is no judgement. 5th Public Talk Saanen (26th July 1970); also in "Fear and Pleasure", The Collected Works, Vol. X

Benjamin Disraeli Foto

„Never take anything for granted.“

— Benjamin Disraeli British Conservative politician, writer, aristocrat and Prime Minister 1804 - 1881
Speech at Salthill (5 October 1864).

Wolfgang Pauli Foto

„Nevertheless, there remains still in the new kind of theory an objective reality, inasmuch as these theories deny any possibility for the observer to influence the result of a measurement, once the experimental arrangement is chosen.“

— Wolfgang Pauli Austrian physicist, Nobel prize winner 1900 - 1958
Context: In the new pattern of thought we do not assume any longer the detached observer, occurring in the idealizations of this classical type of theory, but an observer who by his indeterminable effects creates a new situation, theoretically described as a new state of the observed system. In this way every observation is a singling out of a particular factual result, here and now, from the theoretical possibilities, therefore making obvious the discontinuous aspect of physical phenomena. Nevertheless, there remains still in the new kind of theory an objective reality, inasmuch as these theories deny any possibility for the observer to influence the result of a measurement, once the experimental arrangement is chosen. Therefore particular qualities of an individual observer do not enter into the conceptual framework of the theory. "Matter" in Man's Right to Knowledge, 2nd series (1954), p. 10; also in Writings on Physics and Philosophy‎ (1994) edited by Charles Paul P. Enz and Karl von Meyenn

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Augustin-Jean Fresnel Foto

„It's not observation but theory that led me to this result that experience has confirmed afterwards.“

— Augustin-Jean Fresnel French engineer and physicist 1788 - 1827
explaining how he was led to discover the law characterizing interference fringes, in

Aldous Huxley Foto

„Most human beings have an almost infinite capacity for taking things for granted.“

— Aldous Huxley, Brave New World
"Variations on a Philosopher" in Themes and Variations (1950)

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José de San Martín Foto

„The remarkable protection granted to the Army of the Andes by its Patron and General, Our Lady of Cuyo, cannot fail to be observed.“

— José de San Martín Argentine general and independence leader 1776 - 1850
Context: The remarkable protection granted to the Army of the Andes by its Patron and General, Our Lady of Cuyo, cannot fail to be observed. I am obliged as a Christian to acknowledge the favour and to present to Our Lady, who is venerated in your Reverence's church, my staff of command which I hereby send: for it belongs to her and may it be a testimony of her protection to our Army. Letter to the superior of the Franciscans at Cuyo (12 August 1818), as quoted in "Virgin of Cuyo" in The Catholic Encyclopedia (1914) http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/16031c.htm

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Stephen Hawking Foto

„Each time new experiments are observed to agree with the predictions the theory survives, and our confidence in it is increased; but if ever a new observation is found to disagree, we have to abandon or modify the theory.“

— Stephen Hawking British theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author 1942
Context: Any physical theory is always provisional, in the sense that it is only a hypothesis: you can never prove it. No matter how many times the results of experiments agree with some theory, you can never be sure that the next time the result will not contradict the theory. On the other hand, you can disprove a theory by finding even a single observation that disagrees with the predictions of the theory. As philosopher of science Karl Popper has emphasized, a good theory is characterized by the fact that it makes a number of predictions that could in principle be disproved or falsified by observation. Each time new experiments are observed to agree with the predictions the theory survives, and our confidence in it is increased; but if ever a new observation is found to disagree, we have to abandon or modify the theory. Ch. 1

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