„From the physical point of view the characteristic state of the living organism is that of an open system. A system is closed if no material enters or leaves it; it is open if there is import and export and, therefore, change of the components. Living systems are open systems, maintaining themselves in exchange of materials with environment, and in continuous building up and breaking down of their components.“

Von Bertalanffy (1950) " The Theory of Open Systems in Physics and Biology http://vhpark.hyperbody.nl/images/a/aa/Bertalanffy-The_Theory_of_Open_Systems_in_Physics_and_Biology.pdf" In: Science, January 13, 1950, Vol. 111. p. 23
1950s

Übernommen aus Wikiquote. Letzte Aktualisierung 3. Juni 2021. Geschichte
Ludwig von Bertalanffy Foto
Ludwig von Bertalanffy2
österreichisch-kanadischer Biologe und Systemtheoretiker 1901 - 1972

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„Every time a closed system opens, it begins to interact more directly with other existing systems, and therefore acquires all the value of those systems.“

—  Kevin Kelly American author and editor 1952

Out of Control: The New Biology of Machines, Social Systems and the Economic World (1995), New Rules for the New Economy: 10 Radical Strategies for a Connected World (1999)

„Biological communities are systems of interacting components and thus display characteristic properties of systems, such as mutual interdependence, self-regulation, adaptation to disturbances, approach to states of equilibrium, etc.“

—  Ludwig von Bertalanffy austrian biologist and philosopher 1901 - 1972

As cited in: Debora Hammond (2005). "Philosophical and Ethical Foundations of Systems Thinking", in: tripleC 3(2): pp. 20–27.
1950s, Problems of Life (1952, 1960)

„Openness is an essential factor underlying a system's viability, continuity, and its ability to change.“

—  Walter F. Buckley American sociologist 1922 - 2006

Quelle: Sociology and modern systems theory (1967), p. 50 as cited in: Roberta R. Greene (2011) Human Behavior Theory and Social Work Practice. p. 182.

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