„History is at once freedom and necessity.“

Selections from the Prison Notebooks (1971).

Antonio Gramsci Foto
Antonio Gramsci11
italienischer Schriftsteller, Politiker und Philosoph sowie… 1891 - 1937

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Friedrich Engels Foto
William James Foto

„Freedom is only necessity understood.“

—  William James American philosopher, psychologist, and pragmatist 1842 - 1910

The Dilemma of Determinism (1884)
1880s

Jacques Ellul Foto
Nam June Paik Foto

„It is the historical necessity, if there is a historical necessity in history, that a new decade of electronic television should follow to the past decade of electronic music.“

—  Nam June Paik American video art pioneer 1932 - 2006

Nam June Paik (1965), as cited in: David Dunn, " A History of Electronic Music Pioneers http://vasulka.org/Kitchen/PDF_Eigenwelt/pdf/021-062.pdf." ders.(Hrsg.), Eigenwelt der Apparate-Welt.(Katalog), Linz (1992): 21-62.
1960s

William Pitt the Younger Foto

„Necessity is the plea for every infringement of human freedom. It is the argument of tyrants; it is the creed of slaves.“

—  William Pitt the Younger British politician 1759 - 1806

Speech in the House of Commons (18 November, 1783). Compare: "And with necessity, / The tyrant's plea, / excus'd his devilish deeds", John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book iv, line 393.

Jacques Ellul Foto

„Responsibility to history and tradition creates freedom.“

—  Roger Haight American theologian 1936

Chapter Eleven, Dynamics of Theology, p. 234
Dynamics Of Theology

Richard Stallman Foto

„Value your freedom or you will lose it, teaches history.“

—  Richard Stallman American software freedom activist, short story writer and computer programmer, founder of the GNU project 1953

http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/linŭ-gnu-freedom.html "Linŭ, GNU, and freedom" in LinŭWorld (May 2002) http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/linŭ-gnu-freedom.html
2000s
Kontext: Value your freedom or you will lose it, teaches history. "Don't bother us with politics," respond those who don't want to learn.

Albert Einstein Foto

„Once a day allow yourself the freedom to dream…“

—  Albert Einstein German-born physicist and founder of the theory of relativity 1879 - 1955

Variante: At least once a day, allow yourself the freedom to think and dream for yourself.

Hannah Arendt Foto
Nikolai Berdyaev Foto

„Fate and freedom alike play a part in history; and there are times, as in wars and revolutions, when fate is the stronger of the two. Freedom“

—  Nikolai Berdyaev Russian philosopher 1874 - 1948

the freedom of man and of nations — could never have been the origin of two world wars. These latter were brought about by fate, which exercises its power owing to the weakness and decline of freedom and of the creative spirit of man. Almost all contemporary political ideologies, with their characteristic tendency to state-idolatry, are likewise largely a product of two world wars, begotten as they are of the inexorability's of fate.
p. 32
Political Testament (1949)

Mikhail Bakunin Foto

„FREEDOM, the realization of freedom: who can deny that this is what today heads the agenda of history?“

—  Mikhail Bakunin Russian revolutionary, philosopher, and theorist of collectivist anarchism 1814 - 1876

"The Reaction in Germany" (1842) http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/bakunin/works/1842/reaction-germany.htm, Bakunin's first political writings, under the pseudonym "Jules Elysard"; it was not until 1860 that he began to publicly assert a stance of firm atheism and vigorous rejection of traditional religious institutions.
Kontext: FREEDOM, the realization of freedom: who can deny that this is what today heads the agenda of history? … Revolutionary propaganda is in its deepest sense the negation of the existing conditions of the State, for, with respect to its innermost nature, it has no other program than the destruction of whatever order prevails at the time.... We must not only act politically, but in our politics act religiously, religiously in the sense of freedom, of which the one true expression is justice and love. Indeed, for us alone, who are called the enemies of the Christian religion, for us alone it is reserved, and even made the highest duty … really to exercise love, this highest commandment of Christ and this only way to true Christianity.

John Adams Foto

„But a Constitution of Government once changed from Freedom, can never be restored. Liberty, once lost, is lost forever.“

—  John Adams, Letters of John Adams, Addressed to His Wife

Letter to Abigail Adams (17 July 1775)
1770s
Quelle: Letters of John Adams, Addressed to His Wife

Karl Marx Foto
Freeman Dyson Foto

„Without discipline there can be no greatness. Without diversity there can be no freedom. Greatness for the enterprise, freedom for the individual — these are the two themes, contrasting but not incompatible, that make up the history of science and the history of religion.“

—  Freeman Dyson, buch Infinite in All Directions

Ch. 1 : In Praise of Diversity
Infinite in All Directions (1988)
Kontext: Science and religion are two human enterprises sharing many features. They share these features also with other enterprises such as art, literature and music. The most salient features of all these enterprises are discipline and diversity. Discipline to submerge the individual fantasy in a greater whole. Diversity to give scope to the infinite variety of human souls and temperaments. Without discipline there can be no greatness. Without diversity there can be no freedom. Greatness for the enterprise, freedom for the individual — these are the two themes, contrasting but not incompatible, that make up the history of science and the history of religion.

Angela Merkel Foto

„History has often showed us the strength of the forces that are unleashed by the yearning for freedom.“

—  Angela Merkel Chancellor of Germany 1954

Remarks by President Obama and Chancellor Merkel in an Exchange of Toasts on June 07, 2011. http://www.newsroomamerica.com/story/137358/remarks_by_president_obama_and_chancellor_merkel_in_an_exchange_of_toasts.html
Kontext: History has often showed us the strength of the forces that are unleashed by the yearning for freedom. It moved people to overcome their fears and openly confront dictators such as in about 22 years ago. […] The yearning for freedom cannot be contained by walls for long. It was this yearning that brought down the Iron Curtain that divided Germany and Europe, and indeed the world, into two blocs.

Kuruvilla Pandikattu Foto
James Baldwin Foto
Karl Kraus Foto

„The tyranny of necessity grants its slaves three kinds of freedom: opinion free from intellect, entertainment free from art, and orgies free from love.“

—  Karl Kraus Czech playwright and publicist 1874 - 1936

“In these great times,” Harry Zohn, trans., In These Great Times (Montreal: 1976), p. 74

Albert Einstein Foto

„In human freedom in the philosophical sense I am definitely a disbeliever. Everybody acts not only under external compulsion but also in accordance with inner necessity.“

—  Albert Einstein German-born physicist and founder of the theory of relativity 1879 - 1955

1930s, Mein Weltbild (My World-view) (1931)
Kontext: In human freedom in the philosophical sense I am definitely a disbeliever. Everybody acts not only under external compulsion but also in accordance with inner necessity. Schopenhauer's saying, that "a man can do as he will, but not will as he will," has been an inspiration to me since my youth up, and a continual consolation and unfailing well-spring of patience in the face of the hardships of life, my own and others'. This feeling mercifully mitigates the sense of responsibility which so easily becomes paralyzing, and it prevents us from taking ourselves and other people too seriously; it conduces to a view of life in which humor, above all, has its due place.

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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