„To self-regulate, learning systems must be able to
1. Sense, monitor and scan significant aspects of their environment,
2. Relate this information to the operating norms that guide system behavior
3. Detect significant deviations from these norms, and
4. Initiate corrective action when discrepancies are detected.
If these four conditions are satisfied, a continuous process of information exchange is created between a system and its environment, allowing the system to monitor changes and initiate appropriate responses. In this way, the system can operate in an intelligent, self-regulating manner.“

—  Gareth Morgan, buch Images of Organization

Quelle: Images of Organization (1986), p. 77-78 (Morgan, 1998); Cited in: Sherryl Stalinski (2005) A Systems View of Social Systems, Culture and Communities. Saybrook Graduate School. p. 5

Übernommen aus Wikiquote. Letzte Aktualisierung 3. Juni 2021. Geschichte
Gareth Morgan Foto
Gareth Morgan
Organisationstheoretiker 1943

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„For a given system, the environment is the set of all objects outside the system: (1) a change in whose attributes affect the system and (2) whose attributes are changed by the behavior of the system.“

—  Arthur D. Hall American electrical engineer 1925 - 2006

Quelle: A methodology for systems engineering, 1962, p. 61 cited in: Clute, Whitehead & Reid (1967) Progressive architecture. Vol.48, Nr. 7-9. p. 106

Richard L. Daft Foto

„Organizations are (1) social entities that (2) are goal-directed, (3) are designed as deliberately structured and coordinated activity systems, and (4) are linked to the external environment.“

—  Richard L. Daft American sociologist 1964

Quelle: Organization Theory and Design, 2007-2010, p. 10; Cited in: Jan A. P. Hoogervorst (2009), Enterprise Governance and Enterprise Engineering, p. 80.

W. Richard Scott Foto

„For continued system cohesion, the mean rate of system adaptiation must equal or exceed the mean rate of change of environment.“

—  Derek Hitchins British systems engineer 1935

Quelle: Putting systems to work (1992), p. 63 Cited in: Lars Skyttner (2005) General Systems Theory: Problems, Perspectives, Practice. p. 103

Manmohan Singh Foto

„“The term (system-of-systems) is being applied to the creation of new systems by bringing together existing operational systems under a single umbrella and, presumably, creating or adapting links and interactions between the operational systems, which become subsystems of the higher level umbrella system.”“

—  Derek Hitchins British systems engineer 1935

Quelle: Advanced Systems Thinking, Engineering and Management (2003), p. 80 as cited in: Jung-Ho Lewe (2005) An Integrated Decision-Making Framework for Transportation Architectures https://smartech.gatech.edu/jspui/bitstream/1853/6918/1/Jung-Ho_Lewe_200505_phd.pdf. p.

„From the physical point of view the characteristic state of the living organism is that of an open system. A system is closed if no material enters or leaves it; it is open if there is import and export and, therefore, change of the components. Living systems are open systems, maintaining themselves in exchange of materials with environment, and in continuous building up and breaking down of their components.“

—  Ludwig von Bertalanffy austrian biologist and philosopher 1901 - 1972

Von Bertalanffy (1950) " The Theory of Open Systems in Physics and Biology http://vhpark.hyperbody.nl/images/a/aa/Bertalanffy-The_Theory_of_Open_Systems_in_Physics_and_Biology.pdf" In: Science, January 13, 1950, Vol. 111. p. 23
1950s

Russell L. Ackoff Foto

„Feedback: It is the fundamental principle that underlies all self-regulating systems, not only machines but also the processes of life and the tides of human affairs.“

—  Arnold Tustin British engineer 1899 - 1994

Arnold Tustin (1952) as cited in: Daniel L. Young, Seth Michelson (2011) Systems Biology in Drug Discovery and Development. p. 49

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