„Theoretical psychology in its present state must try to develop a system of concepts which shows all the characteristics of a Gestalt, in which any part depends upon every other part. As we do not yet have the knowledge of facts which really suffices to determine this system of concepts and as, on the other hand, this knowledge of "facts" cannot be acquired without developing this system of concepts, there seems to be only one way open: to proceed slowly by tentative steps, to make decisions rather reluctantly, to keep in view always the whole field of psychology, and to stay in closest contact with the actual work of psychological research.“

—  Kurt Lewin

Quelle: 1930s, Principles of topological psychology, 1936, p. viii.

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Kurt Lewin3
deutsch-amerikanischer Psychologe 1890 - 1947

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„In our definition of system we noted that all systems have interrelationships between objects and between their attributes. If every part of the system is so related to every other part that any change in one aspect results in dynamic changes in all other parts of the total system, the system is said to behave as a whole or coherently.“

—  Arthur D. Hall American electrical engineer 1925 - 2006

At the other extreme is a set of parts that are completely unrelated: that is, a change in each part depends only on that part alone. The variation in the set is the physical sum of the variations of the parts. Such behavior is called independent or physical summativity.
Quelle: Definition of System, 1956, p. 23

„There is no such concept as one limit for the entice system: rather different parts of the system face different limits at different times with the traumatic experiences for the entire system depending on the interrelationship of the constituent parts - the collapse, if it occurs, would he regional rather than global, even though the entire global system would be affected.“

—  Mihajlo D. Mesarovic Serbian academic 1928

Quelle: Mankind at the Turning Point, (1974), p. 55; cited in: S.W. Moore, F. Jappe (1980) " Christianity As An Ethical Matrix for No-Growth Economics http://www.asa3.org/ASA/PSCF/1980/JASA9-80Moore.html". In: Journal of the American Scientific Affiliation. Vol 32 (September 1980). pp. 164-168.

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„In concept a feedback system is a closed system. Its dynamic behavior arises within its internal structure. Any action which is essential to the behavior of the mode being investigated must be included inside the system boundary.“

—  Jay Wright Forrester American operations researcher 1918 - 2016

Quelle: Principles of Systems (1968), p. 4-1 as cited in: Richardson, George P. " Reflections on the foundations of system dynamics http://obssr.od.nih.gov/issh/2012/files/Richardson%202011.pdf." System Dynamics Review 27.3 (2011): 219-243.

Kurt Lewin Foto

„[Lewin formally defines a Gestalt as:] a system whose parts are dynamically connected in such a way that a change of one part results in a change of all other parts.“

—  Kurt Lewin German-American psychologist 1890 - 1947

Quelle: 1930s, Principles of topological psychology, 1936, p. 218, as cited in: Granville Stanley Hall, Edward Bradford Titchener, Karl M. Dallenbach (1937) The American journal of psychology. Vol. 50, p. 374.

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