# „Rather, for all objects and experiences there is a quantity that has an optimum value. Above that quantity, the variable becomes toxic. To fall below that value is to be deprived.“

—  Gregory Bateson, Mind and Nature: A Necessary Unity, 1979, p. 56
##### Gregory Bateson
angloamerikanischer Ethnologe, Kybernetiker und Philosoph 1904 - 1980
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### „A function of a variable quantity is an analytic expression composed in any way whatsoever of the variable quantity and numbers or constant quantities.“

—  Leonhard Euler Swiss mathematician 1707 - 1783
Introduction to the Analysis of the Infinite (1748), §4

### „When… we have a series of values of a quantity which continually diminish, and in such a way, that name any quantity we may, however small, all the values, after a certain value, are severally less than that quantity, then the symbol by which the values are denoted is said to diminish without limit. And if the series of values increase in succession, so that name any quantity we may, however great, all after a certain point will be greater, then the series is said to increase without limit. It is also frequently said, when a quantity diminishes without limit, that it has nothing, zero or 0, for its limit: and that when it increases without limit it has infinity or &infin; or 1&frasl;0 for its limit.“

—  Augustus De Morgan British mathematician, philosopher and university teacher (1806-1871) 1806 - 1871
The Differential and Integral Calculus (1836), Introductory Chapter, pp.9-10

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### „When… we have a series of values of a quantity which continually diminish, and in such a way, that name any quantity we may, however small, all the values, after a certain value, are severally less than that quantity, then the symbol by which the values are denoted is said to diminish without limit. And if the series of values increase in succession, so that name any quantity we may, however great, all after a certain point will be greater, then the series is said to increase without limit.“

—  Augustus De Morgan British mathematician, philosopher and university teacher (1806-1871) 1806 - 1871
The Differential and Integral Calculus (1836), It is also frequently said, when a quantity diminishes without limit, that it has nothing, zero or 0, for its limit: and that when it increases without limit it has infinity or &infin; or 1&frasl;0 for its limit.

### „In economic surveys of households, many variables have the following characteristics: The variable has a lower, or upper, limit and takes on the limiting value for a substantial number of respondents. For the remaining respondents, the variable takes on a For the remaining respondents, the variable takes on a wide range of values above, or below, the limit.“

—  James Tobin American economist 1918 - 2002
1950s-60s, Tobin, James. " Estimation of relationships for limited dependent variables http://cowles.econ.yale.edu/P/cp/p01a/p0117.pdf." Econometrica: journal of the Econometric Society (1958): 24-36.

### „The demand for money is regulated entirely by its value, and its value by its quantity.“

—  David Ricardo British political economist, broker and politician 1772 - 1823
The Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (1821) (Third Edition), Chapter XIII, Taxes on Gold, p. 123

### „Knowledge is like money: To be of value it must circulate, and in circulating it can increase in quantity and, hopefully, in value.“

—  Louis L'Amour, Education of a Wandering Man

### „Globalisation is highly selective. It proceeds by linking up all that, according to dominant interests, has value anywhere in the planet, and discarding anything which has no value or becomes devalued, in a variable geometry of creative destruction and destructive creation of value.“

—  Manuel Castells Spanish sociologist (b.1942) 1942
Materials for an exploratory theory of the network society (2000)

### „The value of money is in proportion to the quantity of the necessaries of life which it will purchase.“

—  Adam Smith Scottish moral philosopher and political economist 1723 - 1790
(1776), Book V, Chapter II, Part II, Article IV.

### „The potential infinite means nothing other than an undetermined, variable quantity, always remaining finite, which has to assume values that either become smaller than any finite limit no matter how small, or greater than any finite limit no matter how great.“

—  Georg Cantor mathematician, inventor of set theory 1845 - 1918
"Mitteilungen" (1887-8)

### „It is quality rather than quantity that matters.“

—  Seneca the Younger Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, and dramatist -4 - 65 v.Chr
Epistulae Morales ad Lucilium (Moral Letters to Lucilius), Letter XLV: On sophistical argumentation, Non refert quam multos sed quam bonos habeas. Line 1

### „Assuming… that all available goods of higher order are employed in the most economic fashion, the value of a concrete quantity of a good of higher order is equal to the difference in importance between the satisfactions that can be attained when we have command of the given quantity of the good of higher order whose value we wish to determine and the satisfactions that would be attained if we did not have this quantity at our command.“

—  Carl Menger founder of the Austrian School of economics 1840 - 1921
Principles,, p. 164-5; cited in: Randall G. Holcombe, Great Austrian Economists, p. 90

### „The quantity of energy that ceased to "fall in" is the system's entropy.“

—  Buckminster Fuller American architect, systems theorist, author, designer, inventor and futurist 1895 - 1983
1970s, Synergetics: Explorations in the Geometry of Thinking (1975), "Synergy" onwards, Context: Critical proximity occurs where there is angular transition from "falling back in" at 180-degree to 90-degree orbiting—which is precession. (Gravity may be described as "falling back in" at 180 degrees.) The quantity of energy that ceased to "fall in" is the system's entropy. Critical proximity is when it starts either "falling in" or going into orbit, which is the point where either entropy or antientropy begins. An aggregate of "falling ins" is a body. What we call an object or an entity is always an aggregate of interattracted entities; it is never a solid. And the critical proximity transition from being an aggregate entity to being a plurality of separate entities is precession, which is a "peeling off" into orbit rather than falling back in to the original entity aggregate. This explains entropy intimately. 130.01 http://www.rwgrayprojects.com/synergetics/s01/p3000.html

### „Quantity has a quality all its own.“

—  Joseph Stalin General secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 1878 - 1953
Misattributed, Variant: Quantity is quality. No evidence that this phrasing is due to Stalin, and it does not appear in English translations of his philosphical works. Earliest English is found in 1979 in US defense industry, presumably defense consultant Thomas A. Callaghan Jr. The connection of sufficient quantitative change leading to qualitative change is found in Marxist philosophy, by Marx and Engels, drawing from Hegelian philosophy and Ancient Greek philosophy. Marx and Engels are quoted by Stalin, but this formulation appears to be a modern American form; see quantity for details. Source: Re: "Quantity has a quality all its own" source? http://h-net.msu.edu/cgi-bin/logbrowse.pl?trx=vx&list=h-russia&month=1004&week=a&msg=ljEwsM4dMrpmUGVfI7EGqg, Tim Davenport, h-russia https://networks.h-net.org/h-russia, April 5, 2010 Stalin may have said that way before World War II, there is evidence in his Russian-language books, for example here http://www.modernlib.ru/books/stalin_iosif_vissarionovich/tom_14/read_16/.

### „A linguistic variable is a variable whose values are words or sentences in a natural or synthetic language.“

—  Lotfi A. Zadeh Electrical engineer and computer scientist 1921 - 2017
1970s, Outline of a new approach to the analysis of complex systems and decision processes (1973), p. 28

### „Christ is not valued at all unless He be valued above all.“

—  Aurelius Augustinus early Christian theologian and philosopher 354 - 430
Dictionary of Burning Words of Brilliant Writers (1895), p. 395

### „Possessing utility, commodities derive their exchangeable value from two sources: from their scarcity, and from the quantity of labour required to obtain them.“

—  David Ricardo British political economist, broker and politician 1772 - 1823
The Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (1821) (Third Edition), Chapter I, Section I, On Value, p. 5