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Umberto Eco

Geburtstag: 5. Januar 1932
Todesdatum: 19. Februar 2016

Umberto Eco war ein italienischer Schriftsteller, Kolumnist, Philosoph, Medienwissenschaftler und wohl der bekannteste zeitgenössische Semiotiker. Durch seine Romane, allen voran Der Name der Rose, wurde er weltberühmt.

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Zitate Umberto Eco

„Wo Es war, soll Ich werden.“

—  Umberto Eco

Interpretazione e sovrainterpretazione: Un dibattito con Richard Rorty, Jonathan Culler e Christine Brooke-Rose

„Wir bewegen uns auf eine neue Klassenspaltung zu, die nicht mehr auf Geld beruht, sondern auf der Fähigkeit, seinen kritischen Geist einzusetzen und Informationen zu sortieren.“

—  Umberto Eco

Umberto Eco, Jean-Claude Carrière, Stephen Jay Gould, Jean Delumeau: "Das Ende der Zeiten", DuMont Verlag Köln 1999, ISBN 3-7701-4882-7, S. 252

„Weisheit ist begreifen, daß man nicht weiß, ob etwas schwarz oder weiß ist.“

—  Umberto Eco, Streichholzbriefe

Streichholzbriefe. Übersetzer: Burkhart Kroeber. Hanser 1990, S. 19 books.google http://books.google.de/books?id=bKEqAQAAMAAJ&q=weisheit

„Um tolerant zu sein, muß man die Grenzen dessen, was nicht tolerierbar ist, festlegen.“

—  Umberto Eco

Das Denken ist ständige Wachsamkeit http://www.zeit.de/1993/45/das-denken-ist-staendige-wachsamkeit?page=all. Ein Gespräch mit Umberto Eco. Aus dem Französischen von Uli Aumüller. DIE ZEIT, 5. November 1993 Nr. 45.
Original französisch: " [...] pour être tolérant il faut fixer les limites de l'intolérable." - Roger Pol Droit. Un entretien avec Umberto Eco. La pensée est une vigilance continuelle. LE MONDE 5 octobre 1993

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„Ich habe noch nicht einmal eine E-Mail-Adresse. Ich habe ein Alter erreicht, in dem meine hauptsächliche Bestimmung nicht im Empfangen von Nachrichten liegt.“

—  Umberto Eco

zitiert bei: Nina Werlberger. Der Bürger als Verweigerer. ZUKUNFT 12/2010 http://diezukunft.at/?p=1843
Original engl.: "I don't even have an e-mail address. I have reached an age where my main purpose is not to receive messages." - vor dem University Club of Chicago. Zitiert bei: Anthony Haden-Guest. Of Eco and E-mail. The New Yorker 26. Juni 1995 http://www.newyorker.com/archive/1995/06/26/1995_06_26_058_TNY_CARDS_000369998

„Esperanto könnte (..) aus denselben Gründen als Weltsprache funktionieren, aus denen diese Funktion im Laufe der Jahrhunderte von natürlichen Sprachen, wie dem Griechischen, Lateinischen, dem Französischen, dem Englischen oder dem Kisuaheli erfüllt worden ist.“

—  Umberto Eco

Die Suche nach der vollkommenen Sprache, Verlag C. H. Beck, München, 1994, S. 336 ISBN 978-3406378881; Übersetzer: Burkhart Kroeber
Original italienisch: "L'Esperanto dunque potrebbe funzionare come lingua internazionale per le stesse ragioni per cui, nel corso dei secoli, la stessa funzione è stata svolta da lingue naturali come il greco, il latino, il francese, l'inglese o lo swahili" - La ricerca della lingua perfetta nella cultura europea. Edizione Laterza, Roma-Bari, 1993. p. 356

„der Teufel ist nicht der Fürst der Materie, der Teufel ist die Anmaßung des Geistes, der Glaube ohne ein Lächeln, die Wahrheit, die niemals vom Zweifel erfasst wird.“

—  Umberto Eco, buch Der Name der Rose

Der Name der Rose. Übersetzer: Burkhart Kroeber. München 1982. Siebenter Tag, Nacht. S. 607 (William von Baskerville zu Jorge von Burgos).
"Il diavolo non è il principe della materia, il diavolo è l'arroganza dello spirito, la fede senza sorriso, la verità che non viene mai presa dal dubbio." - p. 688 books.google http://books.google.de/books?id=QMfSLZ-4iC4C&pg=PT688
Variante: Der Teufel ist nicht der Fürst der Materie, der Teufel ist die Anmaßung des Geistes, der Glaube ohne ein Lächeln, die Wahrheit, die niemals vom Zweifel erfasst wird.

„Der Autor müsste das Zeitliche segnen, nachdem er geschrieben hat. Damit er die Eigenbewegung des Textes nicht stört.“

—  Umberto Eco

Nachschrift zum »Namen der Rose«, dtv, ISBN 3-423-10552-6; Übersetzer: Burkhart Kroeber
Original italienisch: "L'autore dovrebbe morire dopo aver scritto. Per non disturbare il cammino del testo." -Postille a Il nome della rosa. Bompiani, 1984. p. 10

„I am mimetic. If I write a book set in the seventeenth century, I write in a Baroque style. If I’m writing a book set in a newspaper office, I write in Journalese.“

—  Umberto Eco

quoted in Marco Belpoliti, " Umberto Eco: How I Wrote my Books http://en.doppiozero.com/materiali/interviste/umberto-eco-how-I-wrote-my-books" (2015)

„For the Kabalist, the fact that God expresses Himself, even though His utterances are beyond any human insight, is more important than any specific and coded meaning His words can convey.“

—  Umberto Eco, buch Semiotics and the Philosophy of Language

[4] Symbol, 4.4 : The symbolic mode, 4.4.4 : The Kabalistic drift
Semiotics and the Philosophy of Language (1984)
Kontext: Scholem … says that Jewish mystics have always tried to project their own thought into the biblical texts; as a matter of fact, every unexpressible reading of a symbolic machinery depends on such a projective attitude. In the reading of the Holy Text according to the symbolic mode, "letters and names are not conventional means of communication. They are far more. Each one of them represents a concentration of energy and expresses a wealth of meaning which cannot be translated, or not fully at least, into human language" [On the Kabbalah and Its Symbolism (1960); Eng. tr., p. 36]. For the Kabalist, the fact that God expresses Himself, even though His utterances are beyond any human insight, is more important than any specific and coded meaning His words can convey.
The Zohar says that "in any word shine a thousand lights" (3.202a). The unlimitedness of the sense of a text is due to the free combinations of its signifiers, which in that text are linked together as they are only accidentally but which could be combined differently.

„Good or bad are theoretical stipulations according to which, by a philosophical decision, many scattered instances of the most different facts or acts become the same thing.“

—  Umberto Eco, buch Semiotics and the Philosophy of Language

[O] : Introduction, 0.6
Semiotics and the Philosophy of Language (1984)
Kontext: When semiotics posits such concepts as 'sign', it does not act like a science; it acts like philosophy when it posits such abstractions as subject, good and evil, truth or revolution. Now, a philosophy is not a science, because its assertions cannot be empirically tested … Philosophical entities exist only insofar as they have been philosophically posited. Outside their philosophical framework, the empirical data that a philosophy organizes lose every possible unity and cohesion.
To walk, to make love, to sleep, to refrain from doing something, to give food to someone else, to eat roast beef on Friday — each is either a physical event or the absence of a physical event, or a relation between two or more physical events. However, each becomes an instance of good, bad, or neutral behavior within a given philosophical framework. Outside such a framework, to eat roast beef is radically different from making love, and making love is always the same sort of activity independent of the legal status of the partners. From a given philosophical point of view, both to eat roast beef on Friday and to make love to x can become instances of 'sin', whereas both to give food to someone and to make love to у can become instances of virtuous action.
Good or bad are theoretical stipulations according to which, by a philosophical decision, many scattered instances of the most different facts or acts become the same thing. It is interesting to remark that also the notions of 'object', 'phenomenon', or 'natural kind', as used by the natural sciences, share the same philosophical nature. This is certainly not the case of specific semiotics or of a human science such as cultural anthropology.

„To see human beings as signifying animals — even outside the practice of verbal language — and to see that their ability to produce and to interpret signs, as well as their ability to draw inferences, is rooted in the same cognitive structures, represent a way to give form to our experience.“

—  Umberto Eco, buch Semiotics and the Philosophy of Language

[O] : Introduction, 0.8
Semiotics and the Philosophy of Language (1984)
Kontext: Certainly, the categories posited by a general semiotics can prove their power insofar as they provide a satisfactory working hypothesis to specific semiotics. However, they can also allow one to look at the whole of human activity from a coherent point of view. To see human beings as signifying animals — even outside the practice of verbal language — and to see that their ability to produce and to interpret signs, as well as their ability to draw inferences, is rooted in the same cognitive structures, represent a way to give form to our experience. There are obviously other philosophical approaches, but I think that this one deserves some effort.

„These systems can be studied from a syntactic, a semantic, or a pragmatic point of view.“

—  Umberto Eco, buch Semiotics and the Philosophy of Language

[O] : Introduction, 0.4
Semiotics and the Philosophy of Language (1984)
Kontext: A specific semiotics is, or aims at being, the 'grammar' of a particular sign system, and proves to be successful insofar as it describes a given field of communicative phenomena as ruled by a system of signification. Thus there are 'grammars' of the American Sign Language, of traffic signals, of a playing-card 'matrix' for different games or of a particular game (for instance, poker). These systems can be studied from a syntactic, a semantic, or a pragmatic point of view.

„The official Fascist intellectuals were mainly engaged in attacking modern culture and the liberal intelligentsia for having betrayed traditional values.“

—  Umberto Eco

Ur-Fascism (1995)
Kontext: [Ur-Fascism] depends on the cult of action for action's sake. Action being beautiful in itself, it must be taken before, or without, any previous reflection. Thinking is a form of emasculation. Therefore culture is suspect insofar as it is identified with critical attitudes. Distrust of the intellectual world has always been a symptom of Ur-Fascism, from Goering's alleged statement ("When I hear talk of culture I reach for my gun") to the frequent use of such expressions as "degenerate intellectuals," "eggheads," "effete snobs," "universities are a nest of reds." The official Fascist intellectuals were mainly engaged in attacking modern culture and the liberal intelligentsia for having betrayed traditional values.

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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