Zitate von Paul Feyerabend

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Paul Feyerabend

Geburtstag: 13. Januar 1924
Todesdatum: 11. Februar 1994

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Paul Karl Feyerabend war ein österreichischer Philosoph und Wissenschaftstheoretiker. Er war von 1958 bis 1989 Philosophieprofessor an der Universität von Kalifornien in Berkeley und lebte zeitweilig in England, Deutschland, Neuseeland, Italien, zuletzt in der Schweiz, wo er als Hochschullehrer an der ETH Zürich tätig war.

Bekannt wurde Feyerabend durch seinen wissenschaftstheoretischen Anarchismus. Nach Feyerabend lassen sich keine universellen und ahistorischen wissenschaftlichen Methoden formulieren, produktive Wissenschaft müsse vielmehr Methoden nach Belieben verändern, einführen und aufgeben dürfen. Zudem gebe es keine allgemeinen Maßstäbe, mit denen man verschiedene wissenschaftliche Methoden oder Traditionen bewerten könne. Das Fehlen allgemeiner Bewertungsmaßstäbe führt Feyerabend zu einem philosophischen Relativismus, nach dem keine Theorie allgemein wahr oder falsch ist.

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Zitate Paul Feyerabend

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„Facts are constituted by older ideologies“

—  Paul Karl Feyerabend
Context: Facts are constituted by older ideologies, and a clash between facts and theories may be proof of progress. Pg. 33.

„A free society is a society in which all traditions have equal rights and equal access to the centers of power.“

—  Paul Karl Feyerabend
Context: A free society is a society in which all traditions have equal rights and equal access to the centers of power. A tradition receives these rights not because the importance the cash value, as it were) it has for outsiders but because it gives meaning to the lives of those who participate in it. pg 9.

„Taking experimental results and observations for granted and putting the burden of proof on the theory means taking the observational ideology for granted without having ever examined it.“

—  Paul Karl Feyerabend
Context: Taking experimental results and observations for granted and putting the burden of proof on the theory means taking the observational ideology for granted without having ever examined it. Pg. 67.

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„Rationality is not an arbiter of traditions, it is itself a tradition or an aspect of a tradition.“

—  Paul Karl Feyerabend
Context: Traditions are neither good nor bad, they simply are... Rationality is not an arbiter of traditions, it is itself a tradition or an aspect of a tradition. pg 27

„After Aristotle and Ptolemy, the idea that the earth moves - that strange, ancient, and "entirely ridiculous", Pythagorean view was thrown on the rubbish heap of history, only to be revived by Copernicus and to be forged by him into a weapon for the defeat of its defeaters. The Hermetic writings played an important part in this revival, which is still not sufficiently understood, and they were studied with care by the great Newton himself.“

—  Paul Karl Feyerabend
Context: Progress was often achieved by a "criticism from the past"… After Aristotle and Ptolemy, the idea that the earth moves - that strange, ancient, and "entirely ridiculous", Pythagorean view was thrown on the rubbish heap of history, only to be revived by Copernicus and to be forged by him into a weapon for the defeat of its defeaters. The Hermetic writings played an important part in this revival, which is still not sufficiently understood, and they were studied with care by the great Newton himself. Such developments are not surprising. No idea is ever examined in all its ramifications and no view is ever given all the chances it deserves. Theories are abandoned and superseded by more fashionable accounts long before they have had an opportunity to show their virtues. Besides, ancient doctrines and "primitive" myths appear strange and nonsensical only because their scientific content is either not known, or is distorted by philologists or anthropologists unfamiliar with the simplest physical, medical or astronomical knowledge. Pg 48

„Many "educated citizens" take it for granted that reality is what scientists say it is and that other opinions may be recorded, but need not be taken seriously.“

—  Paul Karl Feyerabend
Context: Many "educated citizens" take it for granted that reality is what scientists say it is and that other opinions may be recorded, but need not be taken seriously. But science offers not one story, it offers many; the stories clash and their relation to a story-independent "reality" is as problematic as the relation of the Homeric epics to an alleged "Homeric world." Pg 27.

„Not only are facts and theories in constant disharmony, they are never as neatly separated as everyone makes them out to be“

—  Paul Karl Feyerabend
Context: Not only are facts and theories in constant disharmony, they are never as neatly separated as everyone makes them out to be. Pg. 66.

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„My intention is not to replace one set of general rules by another such set: my intention is, rather, to convince the reader that all methodologies, even the most obvious ones, have their limits.“

—  Paul Karl Feyerabend
Context: My intention is not to replace one set of general rules by another such set: my intention is, rather, to convince the reader that all methodologies, even the most obvious ones, have their limits. The best way to show this is to demonstrate the limits and even the irrationality of some rules which she, or he, is likely to regard as basic. In the case that induction (including induction by falsification) this means demonstrating how well the counterinductive procedure can be supported by argument. pg. 32, Italics are Feyerabend's.

„I say that Auschwitz is an extreme manifestation of an attitude that still thrives in our midst.“

—  Paul Karl Feyerabend
Context: I say that Auschwitz is an extreme manifestation of an attitude that still thrives in our midst. It shows itself in the treatment of minorities in industrial democracies; in education, education to a humanitarian point of view included, which most of the time consists of turning wonderful young people into colorless and self-righteous copies of their teachers; it becomes manifest in the nuclear threat, the constant increase in the number and power of deadly weapons and the readiness of some so-called patriots to start a war compared with which the holocaust will shrink into insignificance. It shows itself in the killing of nature and of "primitive" cultures with never a thought spent on those thus deprived of meaning for their lives; in the colossal conceit of our intellectuals, their belief that they know precisely what humanity needs and their relentless efforts to recreate people in their sorry image; in the infantile megalomania of some of our physicians who blackmail their patients with fear, mutilate them and then persecute them with large bills; in the lack of feeling of so many so-called searchers for truth who systematically torture animals, study their discomfort and receive prizes for their cruelty. As far as I am concerned there exists no difference between the henchmen of Aushwitz and these "benefactors of mankind." pg 309

„This is how empirical "evidence" may be created by a procedure which quotes as its justification the very same evidence it has Produced.“

—  Paul Karl Feyerabend
Context: [On Empiricism ] It is evident, on the basis of our considerations, that this appearance of success cannot in the least be regarded as a sign of truth and correspondence with nature. Quite the contrary, suspicion arises that the absence of major difficulties is a result of the decrease of empirical content brought about by the elimination of alternatives, and of facts that can be discovered with their help. In other words, the suspicion arises that this alleged success is due to the fact that the theory, when extended beyond its starting point, was turned into rigid ideology. Such Ideology is "successful" not because it agrees so well with the facts; it is successful because no facts have been specified that could constitute a test, and because some such facts have been removed. Its "success" is entirely man-made. It was decided to stick to some ideas, come what may, and the result was, quite naturally, the survival of these ideas. If now the initial decision is forgotten, or made only implicitly, for example, if it becomes common law in physics, then the survival itself will seem to constitute independent support., it will reinforce the decision, or turn it into an explicate one, and in this way close the circle. This is how empirical "evidence" may be created by a procedure which quotes as its justification the very same evidence it has Produced. Pg. 43 & 44

„Such assumptions may be perfectly plausible and even true. Still, one should occasionally put them to a test. Putting them to a test means that we stop using the methodology associated with them, start doing science in a different way and see what happens.“

—  Paul Karl Feyerabend
Context: Naive falsificationism takes it for granted that the laws of nature are manifest an not hidden beneath disturbances of considerable magnitude. Empiricism takes it for granted that sense experience is a better mirror of the world than pure thought. Praise of argument takes it for granted that the artifices of Reason give better results than the unchecked play of our emotions. Such assumptions may be perfectly plausible and even true. Still, one should occasionally put them to a test. Putting them to a test means that we stop using the methodology associated with them, start doing science in a different way and see what happens. Pg 295-296.

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